[转]从电影感受航空文化——从《飞机总动员2——火线救援》说开去

  迪斯尼的新作《PLANES: FIRE AND RESCUE》(我国译为飞机总动员2:火线救援)在2014年的7月14日上映,这是飞机总动员的续作,本片主角仍然是大家耳熟能详的“灰尘”DUSTY,只不过在本作中,主角暂时不能比赛了,出于挑战自我,并且为了能够让被关闭的小镇机场重新开放,他换了一份职业,认识了一些新朋友,参加了消防培训,并且在森林消防工作中证明了自己的能力,获得了大家的认可和尊重,并且通过努力让小镇机场重新开放的故事。

  影片在开始就声明了这一部是在向世界各国奋战在消防一线的勇士们致敬影片(图01),因为是一部致敬片,所以全片都是满满的正能量,片中没有尔虞我诈的竞争者,矛盾冲突的对手换成了轻而易举就能夺取他人生命和财产的大火,与大火相比,个人的力量立刻显得很渺小,障碍主角成长的因素不仅来自外部,更多的还来自于内心的反省,主角在与火灾的战斗中挑战自我极限,实现了精神和人格的升华,完全是一部主旋律影片,当然,在严肃的背后本片尽量设计诙谐内容,除了保留了很多第一部的笑点——比如开滑油罐子的专用工具和飞机样子的山峰(图02系),也有很多新的笑料,比如桌子上的糖果盘里放的都是螺栓螺帽(图03)等等,当然更主要的是蕴藏的专业航空知识点,今天,我们就结合这部影片来和大家聊一聊本片中那些相关的航空知识。

01 影片开头的致敬字幕,谨以本片向世界各地奋战在消防战线、为了挽救他人生命而奉献自己的全体消防战士致以崇高的敬意,一开始就定下了非常的正能量的影片基调。其实,美国人也非常喜欢拿消防队员开玩笑,很多早期的迪斯尼动画短片就有不少是恶搞消防队员的
02 酒吧里多的是那些专业的油桶,油罐以及插在油罐子上的专用工具
02 看看背景,还是飞机样子的山峦,还是B-17范儿
03 桌子上的糖果盘里放的是维修常用耗材——螺栓螺帽。看看滑油罐子上的专业工具,传统笑点保留的同时还有新增内容

  一开始还是在描述主角在竞技场上的征战,很精彩的展现了两项航空竞技界顶级赛事:一项是RENO AIR RACE,中文名叫“雷诺飞行竞赛”或者叫“全美飞行锦标赛”(图04系),该项赛事从1964年就开始了,每年的九月在内华达州的雷诺市北面的雷诺机场(Reno Stead Airport,ICAO的四字代码是KRTS)举行,每届为期7天,是全美乃至全球的最高水平的飞机的空中竞速活动,各参赛机要围绕着放置于地面的航标完成闭合航线的竞速飞行,根据参赛机型和组别的不同,航标单圈距离从3-8英里(约合4.8-12.9公里)也有差别,为了参加此项赛事,各参赛机都是专门设计的,如果用现有的飞机参赛,也会做令人匪夷所思的,几乎接近全新设计的重大改装,因此,在雷诺飞行竞赛上经常能看到使用诸如P-51野马、雅克等著名的二战战机改装的竞赛机(图05系)。

04 2014年参加雷诺飞行竞赛的T-6机群,大家都在大坡度转弯,飞行高度也很低,同一机型飞行比赛更加公平,完全比拼的是飞行技术、团队力量
04 晨曦中的雷诺机场
04 片中精彩展现了“雷诺飞行竞赛”,大家可以看到激烈竞争的机群、雷诺机场的观众席以及特色的交叉跑道,注意,所有的参赛机都是逆时针绕飞那些矗立在场地中的红白相间的地标
04 影片中的参赛机正在雷诺赛中绕飞地标,大家都是逆时针方向围绕预设地标绕标飞行
04 这个角度能清楚地看到地标以及热情的观众
05 2014年参加雷诺飞行竞赛的P-51“野马”,很明显这是一架“魔改”机,和原始的样子已经有很大差别了
05 参加雷诺飞行竞赛的方程式竞赛机机群编队,此类飞机多为运动员自行设计建造
05 参加雷诺飞行竞赛的注册号为N5934的雅克-11型竞赛机

  另外一项赛事就是RED BULL AIR RACE,中文名“红牛飞行特技世界锦标赛”(图06系),该项赛事是从2003年开始的,既然叫世锦赛,那也就清楚的表明了红牛赛和雷诺赛的不同,前者是在世界范围内选择场地来进行,后者就一直固定在雷诺机场举行,红牛赛和雷诺赛的另外一项区别是飞行的技巧和要求,虽然大家都是在闭合的航线内比赛飞行速度,但是红牛赛不仅仅只是像雷诺赛那样简单的同方向绕飞地标很多圈,而是需要穿越由多个高20米的气柱组成的“气柱门标”并且完成闭合航线的竞速竞技,首先,这个飞行路线很复杂,飞机随时要改变飞行方向,其次,为了增加飞行难度、观众看点和评判标准,赛事制订了了很多穿越规则,比如遇到红色的气柱门就必须以侧飞的“刀锋”的动作(就是大翼所在的飞机横轴与天地线正交90度的侧飞方式)来穿越气柱门,而遇到蓝色的气柱门则必须以平飞的方式来穿越,飞越的高度有严格的限制,过高、过低、划撞气柱、遗漏穿越气柱门、飞出比赛规定空域以及将飞机飞出12G的过载等危险动作都会被罚分甚至是直接取消比赛资格。由于红牛赛的可看性更强而且举办地相对灵活,所以红牛赛的观众正在与日俱增,这两项世界顶尖的航空竞技活动的高难度和竞争的激烈,诸位读者都可以在微软飞行模拟中来直接感受。

06 影片表现的红牛飞行特技世界锦标赛,注意主角刚刚用“刀锋”的动作穿过红色气柱门,气柱门下方还写着红牛赛的变形字体,它很有意思的使用的red bulldozer“红色推土机”来取代了真实世界里的“red bull air race”显得更搞笑
06 真实世界里红牛飞行特技世界锦标赛

  主角屡屡获奖,知名度越来越大,也开始给粉丝们签名了,他的签名是一个大大的D字,注意这个可爱的轮胎印,这种印痕很清楚的展现了现代航空轮胎的花纹(图07系),目前所有的航空轮胎都是这样的花纹,它的胎面只有纵向沟纹而没有类似汽车轮胎那种横向花纹,虽然看起来没有汽车轮胎那样花哨,但是这样却是为了保证飞机轮胎在足够安全的强度下具有优秀的排水性能,飞机轮胎是飞机上最常更换的消耗型航材,更换的标准之一就是这些沟槽被磨平,根据飞机机型和飞行强度的不同,飞机轮胎基本上就是100-150个飞行起落就要更换。因为飞机比汽车重很多,而且每次着陆接地时有着很强的冲击,这要求飞机轮胎的负荷能力必须比汽车轮胎高很多,而航空轮胎充气压力也很高,这要求航空轮胎有更多层数的帘线加强支撑材料,橡胶胎体也比汽车轮胎的厚,飞机轮胎运行环境较为恶劣,环境温度变化较大,地面工作可以到近百度的高温,而空中又是零下40-50度的低温;飞机着陆时速度高,还伴随有下降率,轮胎瞬间从0加速到250公里/小时的速度,瞬间拖胎的机会远大于汽车;而且飞机刹车能量很大,这就更要求轮胎又要具备具有良好的耐热耐冲击以及恶劣工况的适应性能。这都要求航空轮胎必须采用特殊的材料与工艺技术,其材料物理性能高、生热低,而且配置合理,如过单纯看生产工艺流程其实与普通汽车轮胎区别并不是很大,无非就是航空轮胎可以在磨损更换之后,只要按规定能够通过对胎体的检测,就可以重新覆盖表面橡胶层来实现轮胎重复的利用,而车用轮胎一般就不具备这样的能力了。

07 飞机维护手册中对飞机轮胎的剖面和结构描述
07 影片中第二次出现轮胎签名,签的很熟练
07 展现飞机轮胎花纹的“签名”,其实,这些“签名”在飞机跑道两端接地区域经常能看到,这些印记能看出很多航空的门道
07 这张能直观的看出航空轮胎的花纹

  我们熟悉的这个、小镇名字也很航空,叫“滑流镇”,镇上的居民正在筹备玉米节,洋溢着欢乐祥和的气氛,我们再次看到这个依托机场建设的小镇,这就是典型的“航空小镇”或者“飞行小镇”(AIR PARK),最近“航空小镇”这个名词在我国的媒体上出现的频率较多,其这就是来自于美国的AIR PARK概念(图08系),美国有很多这样的地方,居民家门口往往不是停车场或者马路,而是机场的停机坪、滑行道甚至是跑道,是因为飞行作业的需要或者依托飞行活动而自然形成的一种居民聚集区,小镇的主要硬件元素都是飞行相关,诸如航油、航材保障、气象服务、维修改装等等,而居民的生活配套反倒相对成了附属品,具备这样的地方往往是风景名胜区和适合飞行作业广袤农庄以及交通不便的山中小镇。在本片和前作中表现的就是这样的一个飞行小镇,不过笔者研究了国内的一些所谓的“航空小镇”的规划和发展思路后发现,我国的这些“航空小镇”虽然有汇集飞机制造、维修、FBO(固定运营基地)、销售、观光旅游、飞行培训和包机服务等等,但实际上在建设的时候还是大多以通航飞行或者飞机销售展示为辅,主力还是在搞别墅建设销售等房地产相关的消费产业。因此我们的“航空小镇”的概念往往是借助发展通航产业之名行圈地炒作房地产之实,这也在某一方面就说明了我国公众对于通航的认知,有些地方并没有把通用航空当作是一个实用产业,更多的是觉得通用航空是身份象征,是让土地升值的装饰,是某些泡沫型经济企业实现曲线救国的途径,这些做法会让我国的通用航空产业发展畸形,会给公众带来不良的影响,误导舆论,甚至可能导致地方本来希望打造的通用航空产业崩溃,这些都是特别需要地方政府和民航管理部门引起注意和必须加以正确引导的。

08 美国的航空小镇
08 小镇的居民拉起横幅准备玉米节,注意小镇的名字非常航空特色——滑流镇,三个玉米组成了航空螺旋桨
08 影片中的滑流镇上的旅店,从这里就能感受到很浓的航空氛围,广告牌是飞机很明显,但是屋顶红白相间的风向杯和三盏蓝色的灯您能看出来和飞行有关系吗??前者是机场气象设施,是测量风向风速的专用设备,后者就是停机坪和滑行道的边界灯

  主角在例行的飞行训练中,发动机的主减速齿轮箱齿轮齿面崩落(图09),这导致了严重的发动机故障,影片用卡通的形式精彩地展现了飞机维护工程师“多蒂”(DOTTIE)是如何将滑油滤芯上的金属碎片收集,通过电子显微镜进行金相分析,以及通过化学实验来确定这些材料到底来自哪里的一个故障检查过程(图10系),镜头虽然只有短短的几秒,但是非常真实的描述了对于飞机发动机内部出现金属屑和其他异物的检查程序,飞机的发动机是很精密的部件,是飞机上最昂贵的部件之一,也是在飞机一生中最需要保养、检查和监控的部件,对发动机运行状态的管控主要是监控诸如燃油消耗率、滑油消耗率、发动机震动,推力或者扭力指标,发动机排气温度,启动时间,启动温度,运行循环和在翼飞行小时数等数据。

09 主角在训练中减速齿轮的出现损伤,这种镜头也就只能通过动画CG能表现了
10 机务工程师多蒂正在检查主角的滑油滤芯,此时她已经展开了滤芯的芯材,并使用清洁液来取得干净的异常碎屑
10 多蒂正在利用电子显微镜来检查这些碎屑,分析这些碎屑金相组织,以此判断碎屑的种类和来源
10 通过分析金属的金相组织,能够判断碎屑的种类和来源,但是为了更加准确,通过化学方法能够实现多重手段的互相印证,这证明飞机维修工作必须保持严谨的态度,这是对航空安全和维修质量的保证的必要手段

  很多数据可以通过机载设备直接下载保存由工程技术部门处理,但发动机的机械运行状况则要通过人工检查燃油滤芯,滑油滤芯,磁探测堵头以及内窥孔探来进行,滑油滤芯和磁探测堵头堵都设计在飞机发动机的滑油系统管路里(图11),滑油系统在飞机上的作用有四个:润滑、冷却、密封、清洁,滑油往往会因为灰尘或者滑油高温炭化变色变脏,这都是正常和允许的,而且飞机上的润滑油会随着发动机的运转逐渐消耗,一般不更换,只需每天检查滑油的量,并按需添加新的就行。但是只要发现有其他类型的杂物等异常情况就必须谨慎检查,如果是有铁、钴、镍这样的碎屑就会被有磁探测堵头吸附住,而如果是其他金属或者材料的碎屑则通过滤芯来进行拦截。一旦发现异物,机务工程师务必查出这些材料的来源并确保排除相应故障,相应管路清洗完毕,否则就会发生类似影片最后的发动机齿轮箱彻底失效(影片中是咬死,图12)的故障,甚至导致机毁人亡的重大事故。所以机务工程师会经常检查发动机的磁堵和燃油滑油滤芯确保发动机内部运行正常,这种检查需要仔细的掰开滤芯的折叠成型多层过滤材料,不放过任何一个褶皱。为了确保安全,每次检查发动机磁堵和滤芯时都必须更换全新的密封圈和滤芯,当然这样的工作同样适用于在飞机液压系统的检查,笔者曾经维修一架飞机时就发现液压压力低,液压系统运行声响异常,检查油滤发现了大量的铝屑以及细小的轴承滚棒,判断是液压泵失效,液压泵拆下送附件维修部门检查后发现整个液压泵内部运行部件已经几乎完全损坏,此时光更换全新的泵是不够的,必须将该泵上下游相关的液压管路全部拆开检查清洗,确保内部没有杂物积存才重新安装这些管路和新的泵体,操作测试确保没有异常才行。

11 飞机维护手册中对于发动机滑油系统的描述,图中央最大的润滑组件上就安装有滑油供油滤(1个),回油磁堵探头(3个),磁堵一般都安装在回油管路上,以便于收集可能出现的异常材料,在磁堵之后就是回油滤(图右下角)这样两套油滤加三个磁堵足以保证发动机滑油系统在关键的工作区域是可靠的,而且能有效发现各种异常
12 发动机是飞机的关键部件,各种故障现象一定要重视,否则就会造成影片最后出现的发动机失效的严重后果

  大家会看到关于发动机故障的维修方面主角和多蒂的争执,多蒂因为找不到备件坚持要限制发动机输出功率,而主角认为更换零件就行,他觉得通过订购A-G部件,这样周末就能进行更换,这里我们要解释一下,影片中主角所说的订购A-G部件在真实世界里叫做订购“AOG”(Aircraft On Ground——飞机趴窝啦,图13系)零部件,这不是某种特殊的航材,而是针对加急航材订货方法的一种专有称呼,这种航材采购方法比正常渠道的订购航材采购价格贵出3-5倍甚至更高昂的价格,是针对特别紧急的情况,是属于航材公司或者飞机制造厂给客户的一种特殊零备件服务(有点类似平信和特快专递的区别),正常的航材采购渠道会有1-3个月甚至更长的周期,但是费用比较低廉,运输方法也多采用成本较低的海运和陆运,而AOG订货的航材则几乎全部是空运,可以保证在全球范围的客户最慢1周就能拿到需要的航材,最快的当天就能拿到,因为AOG订货的零部件都是加急空运,采购成本大大提升,所以一般航空公司或者维修单位的航材采购都会尽量做好计划来通过正常途径采购航材,只有实在不得已才会安排AOG订货。

13 真实中的中国东方航空公司为保障世博会而专门设计的AOG航材处理表
13 主角说的订购A-G Parts这个事情在现实中就是订购AOG级别的航材,该级别的航材订货主要特点是服务快,让客户在最短时间拿到需要的航材,就是费用贵了很多,除非紧急情况,一般不会用这个级别的航材订购渠道

  影片中主角是安装的PT-6涡轮螺旋桨发动机(图14),减速器是将高达2-3万转/分的涡轮转速降到数千转并将驱动力量传输给螺旋桨的重要部件,减速器内部的齿轮一旦出现齿面脱落(特别是咬合面脱落)的情况就绝对不能够再次启动发动机,因为只要那样做一定会导致更大的损失,必须停场检修,至于影片里主角的机务工程师“多蒂”还允许主角“带伤”飞行这个事在现实中是基本不可能发生的,虽然影片里给发动机一定的限制这样的事在实际中也有,只不过是出现在另外一种情况里:比如该发动机进入老龄期,发动机性能正常的衰退,发动机排气温度(EGT)接近规定最大运行极限的时候,飞机维护工程师就会明确给这台发动机予以使用的限制,并且通知运行控制以及飞行机组,确保安排装备这台发动机的飞机在配载方面不要过大,运行的起降机场高度不要太高,航线飞行高度不要过高等等的限制,这些限制都会提前通知飞行员,让他们按照限制来使用和监控发动机,确保飞机的飞行安全以及最大化的经济效益。一旦发动机运行EGT裕度不足,会立刻更换该台发动机。无论如何,绝对不会允许发动机带故障飞行。

14 PT6涡轮螺旋桨发动机的真实例子

  现代的航空发动机都采用单元体设计,哪里坏了换哪里,PT-6涡桨发动机的减速齿轮箱就是一个单独的单元体,可以直接进行更换,可惜主角却一直找不到备件而无法再次参加比赛。影片是艺术加工产品,可以适当夸张,因此主角还得飞行,不然就“没戏”唱了,主角赌气的飞行引发了小镇机场的火灾事故(图15),一场大火虽然在大家齐心合力下得以扑灭,但是因为小镇机场消防能力不足直接导致机场运行合格证被取消(图16系),这一变故是非常符合实际的。任何一个机场要能够开始运行必须获得军方或者民航管理部门的审核和批准,特别是民航管辖的机场要能够开放运行都必须获得《民用机场使用许可证》,每一个在民航局注册的机场都有自己严格的运行管理程序,而这些运行管理程序中的应急处置章节是机场能否获得局方给予运行许可的关键因素之一。在这一章里,必须明确该机场的消防能力和处置预案符合《中华人民共和国消防法》和《机关团体企事业单位消防安全管理规定》而且必须明确指出消防设施的种类、数量、等级、消防人员的组织构成和人员数量以及每年实施消防应急救援演练的次数,这些都是机场运行合格审定的关键支撑资料,缺一不可,一旦缺失或者达不到规定的要求就会造成机场的使用许可证被吊销,这种限制在美国一样是有严格的法律条款来约束的。

15 主角的执意飞行酿成了惨祸,飞行是一项严谨的工作,容不得半点胡来
16 根据规章,滑流镇的机场被吊销了使用合格证,看看,有理有据有节
16 构建法制社会的基础就是需要严格且详尽的规章制度
16 在航空圈里,最不缺的就是规定详尽的法律规章和程序制度,所有的航空从业者都是严格按照现行有效的规章制度来办事的,所以,TMST的官员的这些话看似搞笑,其实却非常反映现实

  现在大家都知道火灾可分为五类,A类火灾是由含碳可燃物诸如纸张、木材、棉、毛等固体可燃物造成的,针对此类的火灾往往使用水基消防器材进行扑灭;B类火灾是由可燃的液体类诸如汽油、酒精、香蕉水等造成的火灾,针对此类火灾往往使用沙土、干粉、阻燃泡沫以及二氧化碳灭火器扑灭;C类火灾则是由可燃气体诸如乙炔、甲烷、天然气等引发的,扑灭此类火灾应使用干粉、卤代烷、二氧化碳灭火器;D类火灾则是由可燃金属诸如钾、钠、镁、铝粉造成的,扑灭此类火必须用沙土来隔离氧气;还有E类火灾则是因为电器电路发生了短路、跳火等故障造成的,对于此类火灾必须使用卤代烷、干粉以及二氧化碳灭火器进行扑灭。根据以上我们可以轻松地判定影片中出现是属于B类火灾,应该使用专用的消防阻燃泡沫、防火沙土进行氧气阻隔、降低火点温度、阻止燃烧物移动和缩小燃烧面积救援处置,而在影片中使用水来消防的处理不仅不能安全的灭火,反而因为油比水轻会造成可燃物漂在水面上随着水流四处移动,这样火灾不仅没有扑灭反而会扩大(图17系),因此当TMST的消防检察官(他可是一辆专业的机场消防车——这种车辆可以用消防炮喷水也可以喷洒专用的消防泡沫,大家平常很难看到,他们往往更多出现的时候反而是在迎接新飞机加盟机队时的水门洗尘典礼上,图18系)质询小镇的消防员“紧急”MAYDAY(该词来源于“帮帮我”的法语,英文发音为Mayday,与“五月一日”的英文发音一样,这是国际上通用的紧急情况的专用无线电通信语言,使用时应先连续说三次Mayday,然后在通报自己的交通工具型号、位置、故障原因以及求助要求)的时候,我想很多在消防阵线的战士们都会笑出来的。

17 “紧急”一开始的指挥是没有问题的,在火灾扩大前降低火场外围那些易燃物的温度
17 但是后来用水来灭油引发的B类火是非常冒险的行为,搞不好就会让火情扩大,必须用沙土,专用泡沫等等
18 机场专用消防车上的各种水炮
18 迎接新飞机的最高礼仪就是有消防车参加的水门礼
18 这是波音公司专用的机场消防车,看看他身上徽章,和影片里很像吧?

  说到“TMST”影片中的原意是“交通安全管理局”,不过给了一个很有意思的吐槽——This Means Serious Trouble(这意味着一堆麻烦),看来大家是很惧怕此类监督调查性机构的,TMST的原型就是美国国家运输安全委员会National Transportation Safety Board(NTSB,图19系),NTSB负责全美各类交通事故的事故调查,包括:高速公路、航空、海运、铁路、管道事故、危险品事故。因为航空的特点,其事故调查往往是国际性的,而且美国的航空产品在世界地几乎都有,所以NTSB也会参与国际性的空难或者事故调查,这也让我们经常能在新闻中看到他们。NTSB有一个称为“GO TEAM”的特殊队伍,可以被翻译成为“快速反应小组”,该小组直接归总部领导,由每个专业领域的专家代表组成,在接到事故通知2小时内赶赴事故现场。快速反应组配备必要的文件、工具、表格、及调查摄录取证装备等(图20)。“GO TEAM”组织最初的现场调查,必要时分派其它的工作,通知调查者事故危害程度及问题,随时处理问题。不难看出,本片中的这辆专业的消防车和他的搭档叉车应该就是NTSB的GO TAEM成员的缩影。

19 大家对TMST的吐槽——这意味着一堆麻烦
19 小镇的消防员MAYDAY正在接受TMST的质询,大家可以看到传统消防车和专用的机场消防车的差别,其实影片TMST就是对美国NTSB的一个致敬
19 影片里的描述TMST全称正确的是“交通安全管理局”
20 TMST正在质询“紧急”。注意记录员会把所有的对话都记录下来,你所说的一切都会成为呈堂证供,这个很反映NTSB对事故调查工作的实际情况
20 这是NTSB在88年出具的一份关于注册号为N473DA的波音727飞机的事故报告,大家能够看到NTSB的全称以及徽章

  由于小镇机场的消防能力不足,按照规定小镇机场的使用许可证被吊销了,机场的关闭直接导致小镇居民的慌乱,因为很多参加玉米节的客人是要坐飞机前来的,机场不开放会损失大量的客流,其实我们能够看得出机场在整个航空运行中的关键作用,机场是整个航空运输的关键节点,飞机必须在机场起降、维修保养、装卸货物等等,因此,如果某处没有了机场就无从谈起空中的航线,没有航线,旅客就不会或者无法选择前往该地,协和超音速飞机技术上很成功,但是商业上很失败,因为其高噪音,高油耗,很多美国的机场不允许其降落,没有机场可落的尴尬就让协和飞机在更多的时候是在闲置而不是挣取更多的利润,这也是造成协和退役的原因之一,虽然本例和影片并不贴切,但是机场对飞机的开放与关闭,却可以影响一个机型能否被市场接纳,如此深远的影响的例子就足以让大家看出机场在航空中的关键作用了,因此在片中主角目标就出现了——为了机场能够达到重新开放的标准,本来自己也在等待全新的配件,有个事情干总比闲着强,所以他决定去接受消防飞机的训练,其实这个时候主角去当消防员的动机并不“纯净”(图21系)。

21 当然做消防飞机的目标是为了能让机场重新开放,这个做消防战士的目标并不纯净
21 主角在本片中的目标出现——我要做一架消防飞机

  大家在影片看到了一个名词SEAT(Single Engine Air Tanker,图22)这个是真实的,SEAT就是单发消防飞机的专有名词,这类航空器在现实中有专门的运行规范,航空森林消防在美国是由航空管理部门和国家野火协调组National Wildfire Coordinating Group (NWCG)等多个部门共同管理的,因此也就出版了跨部门的专用飞行器操作手册,大家都可以在网上查阅到这类机型的运行操作手册——里面包含了SEAT的简介,硬件和软件需求,在不同的环境下的运行操作方法,灭火方法,补给和卸载程序,应急训练程序等等,非常的详细。在影片中主角的新教练“刀锋游侠”对主角的训练过程几乎在这个手册里都能找到。

22 SEAT的解释就是“单发消防飞机”
22 真实中“SEAT”类航空器的运行指南

  因为机场关闭,所以主角只能在公路上起飞,其实对于通航领域,很多飞行器的起降要求并不是很苛刻,特别是主角这种农用飞机,一条平整的马路甚至一块压平的田地都可以起飞降落,所以在通航领域实际上有很多的临时起降点可以让飞行器使用(图23系),这些临时起降点并不一定非得要是“机场”,完全可以是公路,操场、广场甚至是自家的庭院或者楼顶,但是所有的临时起降点位置、使用时间以及飞行计划必须报告军、民航主管部门并获得批准才行。

23 机场关闭,只能在公路上起飞,只要能满足飞机安全运行,比较直的公路完全可以是一个临时起降点,只是需要做好道面状况监控
23 看看公路侧面的牌子——距离滑流镇1英里
23 现实中,很多飞行器可以利用宽敞的地方实施着陆,这就是临时起降点,只要上报给军民航的相关管理部门并获得许可后就能使用了,这就是在高速路收费站实施的紧急救援任务,这地方明显就不是“机场”

  主角来到活塞峰国家公园的时候,我想熟悉地理和爱好旅游的观众都会笑起来,因为这就是黄石、红杉树、拱门和布莱斯峡谷等等美国国家公园们的集合翻版。在这里面不仅出现了红杉树国家公园很标志性的可以穿越汽车的红杉树(图24),还有黄石国家公园标志性的“老忠实”间歇喷泉和有着巨大落差瀑布的黄石峡谷(图25),峡谷里还汇集有拱门国家公园的风化石拱,还有布莱斯峡谷国家公园的风化石柱(图26系),而且连影片中的森林酒店都有现实原型可以对照——就是黄石国家公园里著名的“老忠实”酒店(图27),不知道对于这种隐藏广告,估计老忠实酒店或者美国国家公园管理机构得给了制片人不少支持和赞助(图27系),呵呵。当然,艺术来源于生活,高于生活,这里面就有不少搞笑的地方,比如可容纳车辆穿越红杉树上居然有一个可以穿越飞机的树洞(图28),杉树上的鸟窝里面的画眉鸟是一大两小橡筋动力自由飞航空模型(图29),这和本片第一部中恒河上的鸟是滑翔机模型的笑点如出一辙啊,黄石国家公园里的麋鹿都化身成了拖拉机,大家甚至可以通过顶棚的车灯架来判断麋鹿的雌雄特征(图30),这些笑点同样出现在了影片里酒店里陈列的野生动物模型上,然后大家还能看到瀑布附近的拱桥,拱桥的桥拱又一次应用了汽车钢板弹簧的笑点,与真实不一样的是这个拱桥出现在了瀑布的下面,真实世界里这个拱桥是在黄石大峡谷“上瀑布”的上游(图31系),而活塞峰的那个像活塞的一样的山峰原型估计就来自于布莱斯峡谷国家公园的岩柱了(图32)。

24 影片里以红杉树国家公园里可以穿越汽车的杉树为原型的景观
24 真实的红杉树国家公园里能穿越汽车的杉树
25 黄石公园的大峡谷和瀑布
25 黄石公园的著名景点之一——老忠实间歇喷泉
25 影片中以黄石公园的老忠实间歇泉为原型的喷泉
26 拱门国家公园里风化的石桥或者石门,这些在影片里被结合在主角训练的峡谷里了
26 影片中出现的以拱门国家公园里的风化石拱为原型的景点,大家是相互融合啊
26 这一景色就取材于布莱斯峡谷国家公园
27 换个角度看看老忠实客栈
27 活塞峰公园的牌子,注意右下角的盾标,它来自于美国国际公园管理局的标志,只不过把牛换成了拖拉机
27 影片里的酒店真有原型啊,不信,你看!!!这家是大名鼎鼎的老忠实客栈,影片中把它复制的别无二致,只是看起来更大更豪华
27 影片中以老忠实酒店为原型的酒店,几乎和真的一模一样,就是大好多,而且有个空管塔台
27 真实的美国国家公园管理局的徽章
28 这可是影片里恶搞的,红杉树能通过汽车,那就必须得通过飞机,真实里可没有啊,就是树上真有这样大的洞也没有飞机敢钻。。。但是变相的致敬弄得很有意思
29 MARU正在为DIPPER加注消防化学药剂,消防型水上飞机可以在基地补给化学消防液,也可以利用自身能够在水面起降的特点在野外开阔水面取水,注意MARU身后的拖行的管子,还有一个轮式托盘,为了防止管路磨损,在机场上的可移动管路都会有类似的构造,特别是加油车的管子,细节啊,细节决定成败
29 等画眉鸟妈妈落在巢里了,螺旋桨就停转了,幼鸟也是橡筋模型
30 化身拖拉机的麋鹿,麋鹿遍地走,安能辨我是雄雌?
31 黄石公园的瀑布以及拱桥,真实中拱桥可是在黄石峡谷的“上瀑布”瀑布的上游
31 影片中以黄石公园瀑布为原型的瀑布以及拱桥,注意拱桥的桥拱是汽车钢板减震弹簧
32 活塞峰的造型估计来自于布莱斯峡谷公园的这根标志性岩柱

  主角在活塞峰国家公园的机场遇到了一堆新朋友,呵呵,这些新朋友都是著名的机型,大家一定耳熟能详,就像“起风者”WINDLIFTER就是美军的西科斯基CH-54“塔赫”它的民用型号叫做S-64(图33系),而美女消防机“蒂波尓”DIPPER则是格鲁门公司的G-44“超级野鸭”(图34系),是G-21“大鹅”水上飞机的升级型号(图35),只是把后三点起落架参考格鲁门的G-73“绿头鸭”修改成了前三点起落架,机降消防组运载机CABBIE则是美国的C-119“飞行车厢”战术运输机(图36),而主角在本片中的新教练“刀锋游侠”(BLADERAGER)则很难在现实中找到对应机型(图37),从主旋翼叶片数量和前机身外形看很类似贝尔公司的BELL430型直升机(图38),如果看尾梁、尾桨和起落架的话,又最类似意大利的阿古斯塔AW139(图39)。我们主角是架AT402“空中拖拉机”农用飞机,在第一部影片中都已经被改装的估计他妈妈都不认识了,这次他又要变身为一架专用灭火消防飞机。不过 “空中拖拉机”家族确实有一个亚型是专用灭火型——就是AT802“空中拖拉机”(图40系)。

33 “起风者”WINDLIFTER就是西科斯基CH-56(S-64)“塔赫”起重直升机
33 灭火型号的西科斯基CH-54(S-64)“塔赫”直升机
34 美女“蒂波尓”DIPPER是以格鲁门G-44为原型的,看看,一出场就很有气势,关门放御姐!!!
34 这从格鲁门G21发展而来的格鲁门的G-44“超级野鸭”才是美女DIPPER的真身,看,姐的身材是很性感滴
34 格鲁门公司的G-73“绿头鸭”水上飞机,是参考了它把DIPPER改成了前三点起落架
35 格鲁门的G-21“大鹅”可是美女DIPPER的亲妈
35 虽然电影里DIPPER可以单边放下浮筒来搂着帅哥,但是当她在实际情况下翼尖浮筒只能放下一边的时候就麻烦了,您看这尴不尴尬??虽然这是DIPPER的娘,但是血统一样,尴尬也一样遗传
36 “出租车司机”CABBIE则是以美军C-119飞行车厢为原型
36 这是出租车司机CABBIE的真身,C-119“飞行车厢”运输机在越南战场上是绝对的战术运输主力,后被C-130大力神运输机取代,我国台湾也引进过该机使用
37 本片的男2号,男主角的新教练现身,一出境就是酷酷的样子,没有现实机型可以对照,注意,他的机身下面安装的就是外挂消防液箱,航空消防就是多巡逻,早发现,及时扑救控制火情,“刀锋游侠”是非常专业的消防指挥官
38 贝尔公司的BELL430直升机,旋翼和机身看起来和刀锋游侠很像,很多人觉得“刀锋游侠”来自于“飞狼”的造型,其实飞狼是用BELL222改装的,是两叶的主旋翼,BELL430是4叶主旋翼
39 韦斯特兰德·阿古斯塔的AW139直升机,它的后机身和“刀锋游侠”很像
40 这是真实世界里的配备浮筒的AT-802A型消防飞机,就是本片中主角的最新形象
40-2 真实世界里的配备浮筒的AT-802型双座消防飞机,正在实施消防作业

  在本作这些鲜明角色中,尤其要说一下“起风者”这架绿色的重型起重直升机,大家可能会注意到“起风者”讲话总是各种古怪的腔调,会念一些很像个神秘部落的偈语,其实,“起风者”就是以美洲土著印第安人为原型而塑造出来的,所以他会说一些印第安部落里的类似咒语一样的话,为他的配音还是专门请著名演员韦斯•斯塔迪(Wes Studi)来做的,韦斯•斯塔迪可是纳美族印第安人的一个部落酋长,出演过《与狼共舞》、《最后的莫希干人》、《新世界》等电影,而且他还是一名越战老兵、音乐家、作家、雕塑家和活动家。大家可能会问为啥“起风者”要是以印第安人为原型,这还是一个很有航空范儿的原因,因为美国的直升机特别是为军队研发的直升机大都以印第安部落或者勇士的名字来命名,本片中的“起风者”,他的真实原型是西科斯基CH-54/S-64,官方绰号是“塔赫”,这个“塔赫”就是一个印第安勇士的名字(图41),在美国的文化和历史中,美洲原住民印第安人有着重要的角色,虽然殖民者非常粗暴的对待过这些新大陆原来的主人,但在与印第安部落的接触以及对抗中,殖民者也开始渐渐得尊重他们的“敌人”。美国军方非常喜欢用本土文化的东西给他们的装备命名,其中,于是印第安部落或者印第安族战斗勇士的名字就被美军用来命名他们的直升机,所以像“伊洛魁”、“阿帕奇”、“科曼奇”、 “支奴干”等等这些印第安部落或者勇士的名字就是我们耳熟能详的美军直升机的绰号。

41 起风者总是有一些神秘的偈语,其实这是因为CH-54直升机的外号“塔赫”就是印第安部落勇士的名字,所以为他配音的可是真正的印第安演员韦斯·斯塔迪

  “活塞峰”机场优秀的机务工程师“马茹”MARU给我们的主角更换了起落架,主角从轮式起落架构型变成了浮筒式,这个变更充分证明了MARU的维修能力,他有一句名言,Better Than New!!——比新的都好!!(图49系)这也深深透露着无奈,因为公园主管将消防资金都挪用了,当然没有钱买新航材了,这也能反衬出航空这个领域的特点之一就是资本密集。其实我们的机务工程师就是从事飞机的日常检修、整备、深度翻修和改装工作,他们肩负的任务是维持飞机的持续适航性能,适航这个词的定义是航空器本体及子系统在预期的运行环境下和可接受的操作限制下保持安全性和物理完整性的品质。细分为设计制造单位保证的初始适航和运行维修单位保证的持续适航,本片中MARU就是负责持续适航性能的保持.他的能力很“强”,“强大”到能够不依赖全新航材,通过自制零备件的方法来实现对飞机的维护保养,连机场塔台都是他自己用边角废料修建的,而且最后主角的减速齿轮箱都是他利用手边的器材为主角量身定制的,虽然在现实中我们不至于说要用废料来自制飞机零部件,但是能否利用合适的材料对来制造合乎要求飞机零部件却是设计制造能力的表现,美国的很多私人飞行器就是爱好者自己在家里纯手工打造的,而且很多航空博物馆的历史老飞机修复也是利用现在的材料去复制或者补制已经损坏或者消失的零部件,这些其实玩的就是一个“手艺”,显摆的就是一个技术力量。所以,从影片中我们看得出的是MARU扎实的技术功底和实力,其实反衬的是美国民间雄厚的设计制造能力,影片中虽然只有一个MARU,但他代表的是一个完整的维修工程保障团队,飞机维修改装这个事一个人肯定干不成,只是MARU是机务工程师团队以及强大维修技术的代表,他是和DOOTTIE一样代表了广大优秀的机务工程师们,其实这些细节也能折射出美国是一个工匠型社会的现实,美国广大的航空从业者的技术实力足以保证自制零部件的安全可靠,为什么中国喜欢买新飞机,有一个尴尬的原因就是我们的维修技术实力达不到能够把一架旧飞机维护到Better Than New的状态,因此我们在很多情况下只能买新飞机,新飞机的折旧速度是非常快的,这无形中也是给航空运行单位的运行成本增加了压力,相反美国很多通用航空公司或者个人爱好者都在使用机龄较长的飞机,那就是他们的整体技术实力能够保证这些“旧”的飞机的安全性,虽然,“旧”只是相对而言,所以我们还是能反省出来我们在航空维护技术层面需要提升的地方还是很多,不过,这里面不仅仅是维修的等级和能力的升级,还有很多是牵涉到设计生产方的授权甚至是牵涉到国家间的政治交锋。

49 马茹的口头禅“比新的都好”
49 马茹是优秀机务工程是的代表,机务维修讲究的就是手艺,他居然能用边角料弄个塔台出来,这可是相当厉害了,别看是废料弄得,“比新的都好”

  从影片中的角色我们可以看出能够执行森林航空消防任务的航空器主要有两类,一类是旋翼类航空器,主要以直升机为代表,另一类就是固定翼的消防飞机。直升机能够悬停在某一定点上空,旋翼下洗流能够让灭火剂更有效的布洒在林火上,灭火后能够停留在火场附近来观察是否复燃,便于投送机将消防队员实施地面扑救和火情的监察,但是它也有缺点:直升机速度不快,飞行距离短,某些情况下旋翼的下洗流反而会将已燃物吹散到未燃区,可能造成火势蔓延或扩大,不过,直升机都因为其特殊的飞行能力成为航空消防紧急救援的重要力量;固定翼消防飞机的优势是在航程、航速以及载重量上优势明显,但是固定翼消防飞机弱点也不少:比如,飞行速度大导致对某一定点的消防布洒精度降低,对高低起伏较大地带内的林火,喷洒效果不佳。水上飞机作为消防飞机因为可以水陆空三栖运行,适应性更广,世界各国均有研发或者改装,大家耳熟能详的有加拿大的CL215/415,俄罗斯的别-200,我国的水轰-5消防型,日本的PS-1/US-1水上飞机(图42系),有的时候甚至使用民航客机来改装消防飞机(图43系)。

42 加拿大CL415型消防飞机正在喷洒灭火剂
42 日本的US-1水上飞机也有专用的灭火消防改进型
42 正在投水的俄罗斯别-200型水上飞机,注意四个投水门全部打开,最大投放量
42 正在投水的水轰-5消防型
43 747特种消防飞机货舱里的消防液储箱和管路
43 747特种消防飞机机腹的投放口,这飞机一次能装载2万加仑的消防化学药剂,但是因为不是水上飞机构型,只能返回基地着陆后进行补给
43 美国长青国际航空就使用747-100改装为特种消防飞机

  直升机一般没有专门设计出来的消防型号,都是利用现有型号进行改装,这种改装有三种,一种是直升机外挂的软/硬式吊桶(图44);一种就是在机身的下部紧贴安装一个消防灭火专用的水箱(AIRATTACKER,图45系),第三种是在第二种基础上再安装消防水炮,这个改装方法大部分和第二种就混在一起了,就是专门应用于类似高层楼宇消防的定点灭火的情况,因此本文中我们只用讨论前两种改装方式,第一种改装难度不大,主要是机腹增加外挂吊点——一般直升机都设计有机腹外挂吊点或者机身侧边绞盘扩展位,就是用以直升机外挂载荷飞行或者执行救援类任务的,消防用吊桶就是外挂载荷的一种,此时需要做“改装”的往往是飞行员,因为消防吊桶距离飞机有相当距离——这在一定程度生增加了直升机和火焰的高度,大大加强安全性,但是由于其吊桶自身重量和惯性,在直升机飞行时运动必然有相对的滞后,对飞机稳定性影响较大,播撒的时机和固定翼飞机要求不同,因此主要是训练飞行员的技术,而且,消防的外挂载荷飞行和其他形式的外挂载荷飞行还有些差异,因为水/化学消防液是在飞行中被播撒出去的,这会引起飞机和外载荷整体系统的重心和重量分布的变化,这对于飞行员对直升机的操控技术要求很高。而第二种改装难度相比而言较高,改装工时也较长,航材花费也比较高,但是安装好后就很灵活,投放时机和方法掌握可等几乎同于固定翼消防飞机。我们在影片中看到了属于第二种改装方法的消防直升机和固定翼消防水上飞机,而且看到了精彩的固定翼消防水上飞机在野外水源取水方法,就在接触水面滑行的十几秒过程中就可以将水以冲压的方式吸入水箱(图46),不过直升机野外取水的方法在影片中未能展现,所以我们就在这里罗嗦两句,不论是吊桶式还是机腹外挂水箱式,直升机的机体在野外水源取水时都不直接接触水源,如果是吊桶的,打开吊桶的排水活门,降低直升机高度使吊桶浸入水中,水满后关闭排水活门飞走即可,如果是机腹外挂的水箱的则以更低低高度悬停水面,具体高度只要满足能够水箱的抽水管管口浸入水中就行,吸满水后就可以返回火场重复实施灭火程序(图47)。

44 外挂吊桶飞行的卡-32,吊桶里已经装满了消防用水
45 这张看刀锋游侠下面挂载的消防液箱就很清楚
45 珠海航展上展示的卡32直升机,下方就改装了消防水箱,那根橙色的管子就是野外水面悬停再补给的抽水管
46 注意细节,DIPPER滑水时利用冲压效应将水吸入机身里的储水箱,因为不是着陆,因此翼尖两端的小浮筒不放下来,水上消防飞机可以利用这个动作多次取水灭火,可以在十秒左右就让水箱装满。影片展示的非常精彩和写实,看看,姐干起工作来可是游刃有余滴
47 正在悬停取水的CH-54(S-64)“塔赫”直升机

  航空森林消防主要有两种灭火剂,一种就是普通的水,另外一种就是专用的航空化学灭火剂(图48系)。不过前者可以利用固定翼消防飞机的内部消防水箱或者是直升机外挂的吊桶从火场附近的江河湖泊中取水,再返回火场从空中直接将水喷洒到火头、火线进行扑救,价格低廉,取用随意,但是自然界的水可能含有杂质污物,会让飞机后续清理维修较为麻烦,后者则是利用飞机喷洒专用的调配好化学药剂,具体喷洒方法和用水差不多,但是化学药剂不能在湖面水泊上直接吸取,必须返回基地或者固定地点去重新装载,不过因为是专用化学药剂,扑救效果更佳,而且人工调配,液体成份干净,飞机后续清理方便,但是成本较高。化灭、洒水与人员机降灭火三者合起来同时对某一火场进行扑救,会起到相互补充、相互完善,倍显成效的作用。

48 本架别-200投放的就是水
48 这架别-200消防飞机展示投放的就是化学灭火剂,一般化学灭火剂是人工调配的药剂,是根据不同用途而有颜色区分的

  全球每年发生在高层建筑的火灾、森林火灾给许多国家和地区带来了重大损失。此类火灾过火面积大、火势猛、持续时间长、危险性高,即使动用大量地面消防车和消防人员扑救也难以奏效,就特别需要借助消防飞机的空中优势,进行大范围阻隔,快速穿插,轮番攻击以压制火势,直至完全消灭火灾。而本片中就出现了高层建筑火灾的紧急救援和森林消防,而重点在于展现森林航空消防,森林航空消防是利用特种固定翼飞机、经过改装的直升机等航空器对森林火灾进行空中观测预防和飞行布洒灭火剂扑救的一种重要手段,是森林防火的重要组成部分和得力措施,是世界上较为先进的防火、灭火措施,森林航空消防的性质属于抢险救灾的社会公益性事业。森林火灾的特点是突发性强、破坏性大、由于距离较远或者交通不便使得处置救助较为困难,根据森林火灾造成的损失的多寡和扑救难度,我们一般将人工造林区、自然保护区、天然林区、城市风景林区、交通不便的边远林区这五类区域作为森林防火和航空森林消防的重点关注区域。

  森林航空消防的特点很明显,首先就是技术密集和资本密集,应该说,没有一定的航空技术和经济实力是很难开展航空森林消防工作的,所以,航空森林消防甚至从某一个方面而言是一个国家发达富强和科技现代化的重要标志;其次,还是效益密集,具体可以体现在三个方面:一是社会效益。通过航空森林消防的开展可以起到很大的宣传作用,对提高全民的森林防火意识有很强的促进,全民安全防火意识是一种无形的力量,对于降低火情具有相当积极的意义。二是生态效益。航空森林消防可以保护更多的森林,森林能起到防风固沙、保持水土、调节气候和净化空气等作用。让更多的森林资源能够在自然生态环境中发挥导作用,我们的世界就是一个大的生物链,而森林是非常重要的生态链环,森林直接给人类提供了氧气、涵养了水源,间接为人类提供了吃、住、用的原料来源,所以保护森林就是保护我们自己。三是经济效益,最大限度地控制森林火灾的发生,减少森林火灾的损失,也就为我们人类提供更多可以利用的宝贵资源,这也是森林防火的最终目的,而在这方面,航空森林消防最能体现出来;再次,航空森林消防具有火情发现早、报告准、行动快、扑灭早等其他消防方式不具备的独特优越性。所谓发现早,是因为飞机飞得高,看得远,一但有林火,便能及时发现。所谓报告准,是因为除目视外,还有GPS定位和其他机载定位设备等多手段科学定位方法,对火灾的位置、面积、火点数量、火线蔓延方向等要素报告准确。所谓行动快,是因为能在最短的时间内到达火场进行扑救。若是巡护中发现火情,不仅可以利用飞机内部贮存的灭火剂或者就近取水实施救援,也可迅速通过无线电呼叫基地处于待命状态的消防飞机马上起飞,采用机降、索(伞)降投送地面消防力量辅以空中消防飞机布洒灭火剂等方式来实施下一步消防措施;若是本来就利用直升机运载着扑火队员在巡护中发现火情,马上可以将扑火队员机降或索(伞)降到火场附近最佳位置,及早赶赴火场进行扑救。

  上文提到了机降消防,其实这才是森林航空消防的关键力量,航空森连消防不是仅仅出动飞机就能够灭火,飞机消防更多的在于火情的预警、发现、勘察、定位、小火的及时扑救、大规模火线的边缘控制以及向地面灭火部队投放补给甚至是紧急救援等等,真正要完全灭火还是必须有地面消防人员进入火场实施扑救和仔细检查确保再无隐火或者阴燃的火才行,所以说有密切有效畅通无阻的地(地面消防人员)空(消防飞机)配合才是扑救森林火灾的有效途径,而影片中也非常精彩的向我们展示了极具个性的专业的地面消防人员,他们在影片中都是小型的专业工程车辆,各司其职(图50),影片中更多的描写他们是如何让开辟防火隔离带这一处理森林火灾的方法,这些工程车辆的应用也表明了现在的火场救援尤其是大规模的森林火场救援时机械化作业的重要性,影片里出现的这些地面工程车我国都能自行设计生产,市场上也能见得到,写到这里,我立刻想起了最近网络上传的很火的广告语:挖掘机技术哪家强,山东济南找蓝翔。。。哈哈哈,这里再啰嗦一句,通过伞降投放地面消防兵力在森林航空消防里用的较少,更多的是机降或者索降,因为降落伞不太好控制方向,即使用可控的翼型伞也因为火场风向复杂使得降落过程中危险重重,而且,降落伞本体材料也是易燃物,在火场附近伞降空投会极大增加危险性(图51)。

50 地面消防力量的机械化是未来森林消防的趋势,虽然这是动画片,利用各种车辆来指代消防队员,但表现的很道理
51 通过伞降投入地面消防力量实际中用的较少,主要还是机降、索降

  目前地空配合扑救森林火灾的形式主要有两种:一是火场已经有专业扑火队员扑救,航空器直接实施空中灭火配合;二是火场地面没有专业扑火队员扑救,通过实施机(索、伞)降先将扑火队员降到火场,然后再实施空中灭火配合。当然,为了更高效的实施航空森林消防,必须有完善的森林航空消防地空综合指挥机构,这一机构应由机场、地方森林防火部门、空管部门联合组成,是森林航空消防的大本营,负责对本区域内航空森林消防统一领导、组织和协调工作,明确工作责任,制定地空灭火程序和应对预案,要经常安排巡逻值班,在护区范围内进行包括水源、森林资源分布、野外起降场等内容的调查,从而掌握护区森林分布、地形地貌、气候特点等,做到心中有数。制定管理制度、完善体能训练计划,加强消防队员技能的训练,明确分工,严明纪律,以提高整体实战能力。火情多发期,综合指挥机构要与各个相关部门保持信息畅通,注意收集、核对相关配合单位联系电话、护区内防火部门对讲机使用频率等,确保地空配合的各个环节紧密相连。地面扑火队员也应经常检查随身携带扑火机具、食品、水、药品、照明用具等,机务工程师经常检查整备飞机,飞行员则要做好飞行技能训练,随时做好出征准备,而这些影片中都向我们一一展现了,非常精彩。

  实施森林航空消防时还必须确定火场指挥员,这又分为空中指挥和地面指挥,我们在影片中看到空中指挥当然就是“刀锋游侠”了(图52),而相应的地面指挥“激情”DYNAMITE则是一辆黄色的全地形越野车(图53)。在真实环境下,地面只有机降消防队员扑救的火场,由降到火场的机降队队长担任火场地面指挥;有当地民兵或者其他救援力量协同参加扑救的火场,原则上由所在地火场前线指挥部统一实施地面调度指挥;而不论何时,灭火飞机或者机群,以长机上的观察员担任空中指挥员。由于火场情况瞬息万变,因此执行灭火任务的随机观察员、火场地面指挥员到达火场上空后,要对火场进行全面侦察,观察好火场全貌、火势强度、风向风速、蔓延方向,确定重点扑救位置,随后实施灭火程序。

52 刀锋游侠是优秀的森林航空消防空中指挥员,他在指挥地面力量利用干枯的河道开挖隔离带
53 这辆黄色的全地形车就是地面消防指挥员

  如果对火场具体情况不明时,可先派巡逻机对火场进行侦察,全面掌握火场情况后,再派出消防飞机扑救或者安排消防队员实施机(索、伞)降来扑救;如果火场情况已掌握,则直接实施机(索、伞)降加空中灭火;如果同时有多个火场需要扑救时,安排飞机灭火的原则为:先重点后一般(先有人区后无人区,先针叶林后阔叶林,图54),易燃性大,森林价值高的优先安排扑救。对当天未能扑灭的火场,地面指挥员和空中指挥员都要向综合指挥机构汇报情况,提出建议,以便大本营迅速做出全新部署,若在火场有机降队实施夜间扑救,要随时与其保持密切联系,随时掌握扑火动态,同时机场要做好次日飞行的一切准备,直至火场扑灭。确实就像影片里描述的一样,森林里起火的位置不固定,所以森林航空消防一般是按目视飞行规则(VFR)来飞行,因此尽量安排在白天实施,夜间尽量不安排飞行,因为地形复杂,缺乏有效导航手段,能见度不够无法实现安全的飞行(图55),安全飞行的基础都没有,也就没有安全的扑救,除非是经过专业的夜航训练,并且配备诸如高性能夜视仪以及地面移动导航信标台等专用设备后才可以执行夜间航空消防任务。但无论如何,必须保证畅通的火场通讯,火场通讯包括:一是火场内地面消防队员和空中消防飞机通讯,二是火场内的地面消防队员和与综合指挥部的通讯,三是飞机与综合指挥部的通讯,四是地面消防人员与机场的通讯,五是飞机和机场的通讯。

54 人命关天,救人肯定是第一要务,所以在实施消防任务时要分轻重缓急
55 森林航空消防非常忌讳夜间任务,不到迫不得以一般都在白天执行,晚上除非有完善的夜视装备和对当地环境非常熟悉,否则就会和影片中培训的内容一样,救人不成反害己,那样是得不偿失的

  森林航空消防的重点还是预防,对于小火随发现随扑灭,对于已经烧着的大火则首先应该抢挖隔离带(图56),因为森林里有很多腐殖质,都是易燃物,针对这一特点,必须就和影片里的那样首先利用消防飞机压制和控制火线边缘(图57),地面人员则根据地形和实际情况,比如利用河沟等清理出没有连续可燃物的火场隔离带,让火焰无法传播,然后再空地协同逐步清理,扑灭火焰。当明火扑灭后,要清理好火场并派人看守,防止死灰复燃。要抓紧时间尽量进行火场调查,包括起火时间、起火原因、扑灭时间、过火面积、受害林面积及其它损失等等,及时将调查结果总结上报。当确认火场不再复燃后,由总指挥员宣布撤离,注意的是机降队员应在第一批撤离,因其主要是急先锋的任务,扑火任务危险且紧急,需要在最短的时间内休息调整好以随时应对各种突发火情。

56 地面力量正在统一指挥下正在指挥同伴建立防火隔离带,这一处理方法是正确的
57 这里是主角的升华,但是这从瀑布里取水就是夸张了
57 针对森林火灾,首先是控制火场边缘,再逐步扑灭已经燃烧的区域,这不仅是有效手段,也可以最大限度避免飞机飞进浓烟区

  当然了,对于可能的火场要提前发现不仅须要飞行观察员的仔细观察,更重要是的具备分辨火情的专业能力。要不然就会发生我们的主角将一堆游客点的篝火误以为是林火直接扑灭(图58系)的情况。林地中的烟柱常与杂色山坡、色彩类似的东西混在一起,往往不易分辨,另外,干可燃物比湿可燃物产生的烟少,干旱林区的山火产生的烟不仅较少而且更可能与背景混在一起。要能正确判断林火和烧荒、烟和雾、霾、霰、低云的区别的也非易事,还是需要多多训练。

58 观察员要学习对于火情的判断,多训练,防止误判
58 起风者喷洒路径能更清楚的看出如何控制火线
58 误判的结果虽然在电影里看起来那样搞笑,但是真实中可能就会造成“狼来了”的现实翻版

  森林火灾要和生产用火(如居民烧荒、游客篝火、甚至是地面消防人员刻意的烧的防火隔离带等)分开,林火无疑是在森林里发生的火灾,而烧荒以及篝火大部分是在居民点附近或开发的旅游景点。但是只要发现有火或者烟就应该飞抵附近实施具体侦查和判定,确保不发生误判贻误战机。

  烟是物质燃烧时所产生的固体颗粒悬浮气体。其特点:一是有烟柱、烟云,并且不断变化着;二是烟柱与地面形成一定角度;三是烟呈灰白色、灰黑色、蓝灰色、灰色等颜色;四是影响能见度;五是当飞机经过烟层时可闻到烟味。

  雾是接近地面的水蒸气,基本上达到饱和状态时,遇冷凝结后飘浮在空中的微小水滴。其特点:一是白色,成堆状;二是多出现在云少微风的夜晚或雨后转晴的第二天早晨。

  霾是空气中存在的大量细微气溶胶、杂质而造成的混浊现象。其特点:一是日落前较浓,影响能见度;二是有时发生在空中某一高度层上,形成霾层,形似烟云。

  霰是空中降落的白色不透明的小冰粒。其特点:一是多在下雪前或下雪时出现;二是霰柱上连云底,下接地面,从透明度观察,上实下虚,与烟柱恰好相反;三是顺阳光观察霰柱呈白色,逆阳光观察呈灰黑色。

  低云,这里讲的低云是指接近地面的烟状云,云是大气中水汽凝结或凝华的产物,林区因湿度较大,常有低云发生。一般在当日9时之前,多沉浮于沟塘河谷,随着气温的不断增高,逐渐上升,飘浮在林区上空,形成云状。有时这种低云并无一定范围,而且偶尔有较单一的云状出现,远处看去,位于山峦之间,形似烟云。其特点是纯白色,云形稳定。

  出现以上几种天气现象时,一定要多加分析,观察判断,正确识别,避免与烟混淆。能否正确判断森林火灾,是衡量观察员业务水平的一条主要标准。总结来看,在巡护飞行观察时,发现如下迹象,就有可能是火:(1)无风天气,发现地面冲起很高一片烟雾;(2)有风天气,发现远处有一条斜带状的烟雾;(3)无云天空,突然发现一片白云横挂空中,而下部有烟雾连接地面;(4)风较大,但能见度尚好的天气,突然发现霾层;(5)干旱天气,突然发现腾起的云柱或者蘑菇状烟云(可能发生爆炸)。

  其实,我国的航空护林消防开始的很早,1952年4月,我国就成立了东北航空护林中心,现在是北方航空护林总站,这是我国第一个航空森林消防机构,负责在在大、小兴安岭林区使用飞机侦察扑救森林火情,基地设在黑龙江省嫩江机场,1961年11月,又成立了西南航空护林总站,现在是南方航空护林总站。我国于50年代开始进行航空化学灭火剂的研制,1976年经国家鉴定合格,1980年正式应用于航空森林消防。伞降灭火队是1960年组建,1962年春跳伞灭火试验成功,1963年正式开展伞降灭火。1967年开始将直升机用于航空森林消防,同时也就产生了机(索、伞)降灭火和吊桶灭火。50多年来,我国航空森林消防工作走过了艰难的历程。走出了具有中国特色的航空森林消防发展之路。虽然经历过坎坷和曲折,但我们航空森林消防指战员不畏艰难、不怕艰苦,积极为我国的航空森林消防工作做贡献,温家宝总理多次赞誉航空森林消防是“防火、灭火的尖兵”。

  美国在火灾高发季节有1000余架专业消防飞机随时待命,飞行时间数万小时,我们的邻居日本国土面积虽然不算大,但是全国却配备了70余架专门用于森林消防的直升机。我国条件有限,森林消防飞行经费少,每年春季防火期和秋冬季防火期仅租用各类飞机127架,飞行时间总共才3000多小时,而尽管如此,我国的森林航护还是覆盖了大、小兴安岭及滇、川、黔、桂的主要林区,总面积达135万平方公里,占国土面积的14%为保护森林资源和生态环境建设,保护国家和人民生命财产安全,维护林区社会稳定作出了重大贡献,得到了社会各界的充分肯定。相信随着社会整体发展和综合国力的进一步增强,我国的专业航空消防力量也会稳步增加。

  不论是从原作还是全新的本作我们都能发现:影片中的主角和他的朋友们绝大部分都不是军方或者民航干支线运输系统里的飞机,他们都是通用航空领域中的飞行器,那么,我们就需要认识一下什么是通用航空?根据国务院颁布的,于1996年3月1日起生效的《中华人民共和国民用航空法》第十章,第一百四十五条的规定,通用航空是指使用民用航空器从事公共航空运输以外的民用航空活动,包括从事工业、农业、林业、渔业和建筑业的作业飞行以及医疗卫生、抢险救灾、气象探测、海洋监测、科学实验、教育训练、文化体育等方面的飞行活动。从上面的定义可以看到三个关键词——民用航空器、公共航空运输以外、民用航空活动,这就让通用航空所使用的航空器和军机,和大家平常常见的买机票乘坐的民航干支线运输飞机以及警察、海关等部门使用的国家航空器就区分开了,通用航空器也是由民航管辖的,它们是应用范围最广,是老百姓最容易接触(注意不是看到)的航空器。

  按照2007年1月25日起生效的,中国民用航空局第176号令《通用航空经营许可管理规定》(中国民航适航规章CCAR-135TR-R3)第一章、第五条的规定,通用航空企业的经营项目划分为三类:(一)甲类 陆上石油服务、海上石油服务、直升机机外载荷飞行、人工降水、医疗救护、航空探矿、空中游览、公务飞行、私用或商用飞行驾驶执照培训、直升机引航作业、航空器代管业务、出租飞行、通用航空包机飞行;(二)乙类 航空摄影、空中广告、海洋监测、渔业飞行、气象探测、科学实验、城市消防、空中巡查;(三)丙类 飞机播种、空中施肥、空中喷洒植物生长调节剂、空中除草、防治农林业病虫害、草原灭鼠,防治卫生害虫、航空护林、空中拍照。

  上述三类未包含的经营项目的类别,由民航总局确定。特别需要说明的是抢险救灾,不受上述三类项目的划分限制,按照民航总局的有关规定执行。

  从这个规定我们能看出来以下几点:

  一、实际上通用航空几乎涵盖了社会公共服务的各个方面,工业,农业,科研、物探、巡线等等领域,而且一旦遇到紧急情况需要执行抢险救灾或者紧急救援的事情时,不严格按照企业性质区分,只要机型能干,都可以参与。

  二、甲类通用航空企业主要实施经营性航空业务,按市场规则支付。后两者则主要从事为公益性航空业务,多为国家或者地方政府公共支出。

  三、判定是否为通用航空器不是看尺寸,最关键的看具体运行的是啥样的业务。举个简单的例子,波音公司使用波音737-700/800改装出了BBJ和BBJII(波音公务喷气机),这是典型的干线飞机,但是它干的确实公务包机,承运政府要员,商贾名流,那此时的这个737-700/800就不再是干支线运输机,而是承担各种临时任务,此时它就是一架标准的通用航空器了。很多读者可能通过网站、新闻等了解过通用航空这个领域,但是很多人的误区在于将“通用航空”和“私人飞行”划等号,将“通用航空器”和“小飞机”画等号,这是有失偏颇的,只不过由于公众确实见到的私人或者企业购买的小飞机居多,所有片面的认为通航就是私人飞行,认为通用航空器是小飞机也在情理之中。

  在笔者看来,我们国家可以称为航空大国,但绝不是航空强国,一个国家的实力与航空航天产业的水平密不可分,因为航空航天产业是一个国家科研、制造、实验、应用的绝对前沿,它们的很多技术在成熟之后都可以成为社会各个领域的牵引力量,并且能为老百姓带来实惠,而一个国家航空力量真正的强大不是在于你拥有多先进的飞机,而是要看你的百姓对于航空事业的了解和支持程度,一要看这个国家的航空人才的储备量,国家航空力量的强大不仅在于军事航空,不仅在于民航的干支线运输航空,更在于民航领域里的通用航空,老百姓能够密切接触的就是通航产业,想要学习飞行也是通过通航,需要紧急救援也是通过通航,想要参加空中旅游观光也是通航。。。。美国一个国家就拥有全球2/3以上数量的通航飞机,超过23万架的通航飞机为美国储备了大量的航空专业人才,而这些人才为美国国家航空航天力量的在全球绝对优势奠定了雄厚的群众基础(图59),是这些群众里涌现的源源不断的人才让美国的航空力量保持世界领先,我们国家目前通航产业全部的通航飞机也才1500架左右,而老百姓更感觉航空距离自己非常遥远,这虽然是很大的差距,但也预示了极大的市场和美好的前景,我们奋起直追为时不晚,《少年中国说》里有一句:少年强,则国强,而航空产业里有应该有一句通航强,则航空强!!航空森林消防是航空应急救援的一部分,现在我们国家在很多城市也相继开展了航空紧急救援的工作或者规划,非常现实的就是北京红十字会开通的999航空应急救援电话,北京的航空应急救援已经成功的实施了多次紧急救援任务,获得了群众的广泛赞誉,也博得了军民航主管部门的认可,而其他省份的主要城市也都纷纷开展了航空应急救援的实施探索,这也预示着中国的通航业中的紧急救援分支会有美好的前景,在不久的将来我们就会感受到通航给百姓带来的实惠和好处。

59 看到这里很多人会笑这个老奶奶一般的老飞机,可实际上美国有相当一部分飞行员都是老先生老太太,飞行不是难事,关键在于你想不想学,这里也搞笑的演绎了一下美国广泛的民间航空力量,航空力量强大与否与百姓的支持和关注有关,老百姓支持和参与度高的行业一定会变得很发达,所以美国是目前世界上当之无愧的航空翘楚,这和其民间航空力量基础分不开

  本品虽是动画片,但是却非常精彩和认真的展示了消防战士的工作的要义,当别人因为火灾四散奔逃的时候,消防的飞机和战士们却要冒着生命危险冲进火场去,这是明知“山有火偏向火山行”的英雄大无畏的气概,这个领域是需要那些有奉献精神的特别的飞机和人的,本片是向世界上全部奋战在消防战线的战士们的一次致敬,当你选择了消防事业,就意味着被赋予了一种神圣的使命,消防工作不是你想不想干的问题,而是一项关乎生死的赛跑,没有时间让你能去多想,去选择,只有全力的付出,甚至为了救出那些根本不知道名字的“他人”要牺牲自己,在废矿井里刀锋游侠用自己的身躯为主角挡住来势凶猛的火焰,自己深受重伤,这一幕正是消防战士冒着生命危险去救护他人的真实写照(图60),主角的升华也出现在为了营救他人而奋不顾身的时刻(图61系),消防战士就是这样默默的实践这职业的诺言,他们的确是幕后英雄,当然影片最后由于主角经受了考验,从最初的仅仅为了机场开放而去学习消防执照,到最后真正理解消防事业的崇高使命,发自内心的成为消防战士,不仅让机场重新开放,更实现了主角的人生价值,获得了更高的社会认同,应该是个美好的结局(图62)。

60 消防战士为了救助那些不知姓名遇险者,随时会要把自己置身于危险之中,甚至献出自己的生命,别人逃跑的时候他们却要勇于冲到前面,向消防战士们致敬!!!
60 消防战士为了救助那些不知姓名遇险者,随时会要把自己置身于危险之中,甚至献出自己的生命,别人逃跑的时候他们却要勇于冲到前面,向消防战士们致敬!!!
61 沿着瀑布垂直向上飞,任何飞机都不会这样干的
61 影片是文化产品,可以夸张,我们知道这样的事在现实中做不到就可以啦
61 主角明白了消防战士这个职业的真谛,别人跑得时候你却要冲进去,为了那些不知姓名的人而奋不顾身,这是生与死的赛跑,为了挽救他人甚至要牺牲自己,影片中诸多形象的升华和泪点都在这里了
62 机场消防能力达标了,机场就可以正常开放

  成文之时也值深秋,是火灾多发高危期,笔者也借本文向所有奋战在抢险消防一线的战士们、向全部奋战在航空紧急救援阵线的勇士们致以崇高的敬意。一部仅仅100多分钟的动画电影可能很多人觉得是给孩子看的,但是我觉得大人们也应该好好的看一看这部电影,这里不仅能给您带来嘻嘻哈哈的快乐,更讲述的是一份责任,传递的是一份担当,还有许许多多细节折射出来幕后制作人员的认真和敬业(图63系),同时也希望我们动漫产业能学习这种专业认真的精神,一部动画片看出来的是一种作风,如果我们在动漫以及其他各个领域能较真至此,我们的中国梦将会更快的实现!!一部动画电影带给我们的不仅仅是会心一笑,一篇文章也不仅仅是让大家了解一下电影里相关的航空知识以及森林航空消防的一些概念,其实笔者希望在借助电影向敬爱的消防战士致敬的同时,更多的能够给我们读者带去的是关于通用航空紧急救援方面的思考,鞭策和希望!我们国家航空力量的强大与否是和每一位国民都分不开,希望能以此文抛砖引玉,让更多的人关注航空,并致力于我国航空产业的发展和变革。

63 CABBIE正在启动发动机,这里只有1秒多的镜头,但是非常真实的展现了活塞发动机的启动过程,还有,大家还能依稀看到机身前部隐隐约约的U.S. AIRFORCE(美国空军)的字样,这个清楚的标识了我们的“出租车司机”是富有经验的老兵啊,C119从美国空军退役后依旧活跃在美国诸如国民警卫队等的很多地方,所以依旧是细节啊
63 DIPPER准备在开阔水面取水,注意马上触水的一霎那,因为地效而激起的特定卷曲方向的浪花,如果不在现实中仔细观察,这些细节是表现不出来的,细节决定成败
63 从这架别200接水瞬间的照片能清楚的看到由于地面效应而激起的水雾,但是由于水面的阻挡,水雾就会上卷,出现一个卷曲的涡
63 呵呵,细节的笑点,美女DIPPER的翼尖浮筒是可收放的,放下就是翼尖浮筒,落水后稳定机身,收起就可以起到减小诱阻的作用,影片里放下来时是个轻轻的拥抱

[CICD]Choosing Your New Phone System: PRI vs. SIP; Cloud vs. On-Premises

When considering a new VOIP phone system for your office, among all the discussions surrounding requirements, usage cases and call flows, the question of how you get dial tone and how you host your system will come up. Depending on who you’re having this conversation with, you may find yourself a bit overwhelmed. Relax. It’s normal. Take a deep breath … that’s good … let it out … there we go. Now let’s discuss your options, their pros and cons, and maybe demystify some things.

No matter what phone system type you choose, you need to get your calls into it and out of your system. Some come with their own connectivity, some are bring-your-own-dial-tone. If you go with a phone system provided by your telco, they will usually take care of that connectivity for you. However, most telecom providers have the ability to provide that connectivity to any phone system you decide to go with.

Primary Rate Interface (PRI)

A PRI is a T-1 line supporting 23 voice channels, meaning it will support up to 23 concurrent calls. The telco brings in the PRI as a physical cable, and as such, if you want to add more lines than 23 they have to run another physical cable. A major benefit to having a PRI is that there is zero dependency on your internet bandwidth. It also allows for a high-quality voice experience, and if you add a second PRI, can be set up for circuit failover. Unfortunately, as this is a physical cable, there’s going to be some drawbacks. If you want to add lines, the telco has to physically run another PRI and will also have to implement changes on their side to support the additional PRI, so making changes may take longer.

There are a lot of folks out there still using PRI, and a lot of folks getting new PRIs installed. It’s not a bad technology but it can be cumbersome. I’ve also seen quite a few organizations who maintain their old PRI even after moving to a SIP trunk because it makes a great failover connection.

Session Initiation Protocol (SIP) Trunking

So now we’ve got PRI out of the way, lets move to SIP trunking. SIP is a set of standards for establishing calls between a voice over IP (VOIP) line and another phone number such as your cell phone or that old rotary dial at your grandparents’ house. A SIP trunk is how we refer to the connection that the SIP is being delivered over.

This can be a breakout to a Session Border Controller (SBC) from your telco or can be SIP over the Internet where the provider just points at your public IP and you set up your SBC to communicate. Concurrent sessions are generally provisioned on an as-needed basis, one line at a time, so if you’ve currently got it set up for 20 concurrent calls but you know you’ve got that big all-hands meeting coming up next weekend, you can bump it up to 25, 30, heck, go crazy, 50 concurrent calls, and then drop it back to 20 when everyone’s cleared out again. The max number of concurrent calls you can possibly have will be dictated by your SBC or PBX at this point.

SIP tends to be quite a bit less expensive than PRI. It is extremely flexible in that you can add call paths as needed. It allows for more than just voice, such as video. Yet, just as I have you thinking it’s all sunshine and unicorns with SIP, there are still considerations. SIP uses internet bandwidth. If you’ve got a five megabyte down / two megabyte up internet connection, your Quality of Service is going to be very poor. As such, you’ll want to have a high bandwidth reliable pipe to the internet.

You’ll also need to be concerned about toll fraud. I’m here to tell you that it’s real and it happens. Trust me, you don’t want to get that call from your carrier on a Monday morning saying they’ve shut down your international calling on your primary trunk because of suspicious calls to the Dominican Republic. This means that you will need to implement additional data security measures that you don’t have to worry about with a physical line such as a PRI.

Choosing Between SIP or PRI

When clients ask us to upgrade their phone system, we always begin with your dial tone delivery.

As we said before, if you have a single PRI, you’re capped at 23 concurrent calls. If you have a problem that sometimes you can’t dial out and people have stated that sometimes they can’t call in, your limited PRI could be the culprit. Your options are to have a second PRI installed (which may give you sticker shock) or you can switch to SIP. There’s a bit more flexibility and it costs less. As long as you’re okay with an internet-based dial tone or have a redundancy plan, SIP might be a great option.

Then, your dial tone delivery mechanism influences the rest of your phone system roll out.

Cloud vs On-Premises Phone System

You’ve got some different phone system options: cloud based and on-premises. Both have similar feature sets, so let’s just discuss the SIP trunking. Cloud-based phone systems usually provide their own SIP service. You port your numbers to them and you pay a monthly fee based on usage. The associated cost varies from one vendor to the next. Benefits? Oh yeah. If your building burns down, you can set up next day from nearly anywhere with an internet connection. Yes, really. Seriously. It’s an Internet-based PBX, so you can technically receive calls while you’re at the beach, McDonald’s, or even Starbucks.

An on-premises phone system means, well, on the premises. In house. Your system will be located inside your company where you have direct control. Dial tone is delivered to you and your phone system sends calls where they need to go. Yes, they can be setup for remote connectivity, so you’ve got phone calls at the beach and the bar, but now there’s single point of failure: your office. If the power goes out, your phones are down. If a plane crashes into your building, your phones are down.

Oh, and let’s not forget direct routing with Microsoft Teams!

The long and short of it is that there’s no easy answer to what’s the best way to get calls to your phones, have phones, use phones … It’s always some variation of, “Well it, depends”.

If you want something we like to call “set it and forget it” where you don’t have to worry about power requirements and redundancy and all that other stuff, go with a cloud-hosted service and just be done with it. You’ll pay a little extra, but you’ll get some extra usually in return, in its ease of use, ease of maintenance, or just plain lack of ever having to deal with anything more than adding a user.

If you want something that is more in your power, more under your control, go with an on-premises system. You’ll have the keys to the kingdom and be able to do number manipulations and failover routing and all sorts of fun things. Bear in mind that Microsoft is pushing hard to move everyone to Office 365 and Teams and Skype for Business 2019 is the last on-premises phone system they will be making.

Cisco debug commands for FXS troubleshooting

A short list of some basic IOS debug commands used during some FXS troubleshooting and why…

debug mgcp [packets]
Use to view the complete MGCP packets exchanged between CUCM and router.

debug vpm signal
Use to view the on−hook and off−hook signaling for the voice port.

debug vtsp dsp
Use to view digits collection performed on the router.

debug vtsp tone
Use to view any tone generated by the router (dial tone, busy signal, fastbusy, etc)

To save logs to the VG224, router, switch, etc., check the logging command and show logging to verify what is set now.

logging buffered debugging
Log debug messages to an internal buffer with a default size

[CICD]Commonly Supported Fax/Modem Call Flow Configuration Examples

Introduction

This document lists the most commonly encountered fax/modem call flows for which Cisco customers open Technical Assistance Center (TAC) Service Requests (SRs), along with a baseline configuration that should be present on the gateways.

With the number of fax protocols supported by Cisco devices and service providers, it is easy to get confused with all the possibilities. The important point to note is that in a fax call flow, all the devices on VoIP need to utilize the same fax protocol for a fax call to be successful. Fax protocols, unlike audio calls, cannot be transcoded.

A fax call begins as an audio call and then switches over to a fax call. Two of the most common switchover mechanisms are Named Signalling Events (NSE) (Cisco propriety) and protocol-based (Standards) switchover. Just like the fax protocols, the switchover mechanism also needs to be the same in a fax call flow.

Acronym List

  • ATA186 – Analog Telephone Adaptor 186
  • ATA187 – Analog Telephone Adaptor 187
  • CUBE – Cisco Unified Border Element
  • CUCM – Cisco Unified Communications Manager
  • FXS – Foreign Exchange Station
  • GW – Gateway
  • ITSP – Internet Telephony Service Provider
  • MGCP – Media Gateway Control Protocol
  • PRI – Primary Rate Interface
  • SCCP – Skinny Client Control Protocol
  • SIP – Session Initiation Protocol
  • SIP/H323 – Session Initiation Protocol/Voice Class H323
  • VG224 – Voice Gateway 224
  • VG248 – Voice Gateway 248

Configure

In this section, you are presented with the information to configure the features described in this document.

Configurations

This document describes these configurations:

  • Telco – PRI – GW – FXS – Fax/Modem
  • Telco – PRI – GW – MGCP – CUCM – MGCP – VG224 – Fax/Modem
  • Telco – FXO – GW – H323/SIP – CUCM – SCCP – VG248 – Fax/Modem
  • Telco – PRI – GW – MGCP – CUCM – SCCP – ATA186 – Fax/Modem
  • Telco – PRI – GW – MGCP – CUCM – SIP – ATA187 – Fax/Modem
  • Telco – PRI – GW – SIP/H323 – CUCM – SIP – Fax Server
  • ITSP – SIP – CUBE – SIP/H323 – CUCM – SCCP – VG224
  • ATA186 – SCCP – CUCM – SIP – ATA187

Telco – PRI – GW – FXS – Fax/Modem

There are no Fax over IP (FoIP) protocols involved.

voice service potsfax rate disable

Telco – PRI – GW – MGCP – CUCM – MGCP – VG224 – Fax/Modem

This configuration performs both Passthrough (NSE) and T38.

The configuration for both GW and VG224 that do Modem Passthrough (NSE) is:

no ccm-manager fax protocol cisco
mgcp modem passthrough voip mode nse
mgcp modem passthrough voip codec g711ulaw

The configuration for both GW and VG224 that do T38 is:

no ccm-manager fax protocol cisco
no mgcp fax t38 inhibit
mgcp package-capability fxr-package
mgcp default-packagefxr-package
no mgcp fax t38 ecm

Telco – FXO – GW – H323/SIP – CUCM – SCCP – VG248 – Fax/Modem

This configuration performs both Passthrough (NSE) and T38 (NSE). Protocol-based switchover is not supported with SCCP.

The configuration for a GW that does Modem Passthrough (NSE) is:

dial-peer voice <tag> voip
modem passthrough nse codec g711ulaw

Or, if there is no specific configuration on the dial-peer, then this information displays when you enter the voice service voip command.

modem passthrough nse codec g711ulaw

The configuration for a VG248 that does Modem Passthrough (NSE) is:

  1. Configure > Telephony > Port specific parameters > Choose the port to which the fax machine is connected. Set Fax Relay to disabled.
  2. Configure > Telephony > Advanced Settings > Set Passthrough signaling to IOS Mode.

The configuration for a GW that does T38 (NSE) is:

dial-peer voice <tag> voip
fax protocol t38 nse ls-redundancy 0 hs-redundancy 0 fallback
pass-through <g711ulaw or g711alaw>
fax-relay ecm disable
fax-relay sg3-to-g3

Or, if there is no specific configuration on the dial-peer, then this information displays when you enter the voice service voip command.

fax protocol t38 nse ls-redundancy 0 hs-redundancy 0 fallback
pass-through <g711ulaw or g711alaw>
fax-relay ecm disable
fax-relay sg3-to-g3

The configuration for a VG248 that does T38 (NSE) is:

  1. Configure > Telephony > Port specific parameters > Choose the port to which the fax machine is connected.
    1. Set Fax Relay to T.38 peer to peer.
    2. Set Fax relay ECM to disabled.
    3. Set Fax relay NSF to override with 000000.
  2. Configure > Telephony > Advanced Settings > Set Passthrough signaling to IOS Mode.

Telco – PRI – GW – MGCP – CUCM – SCCP – ATA186 – Fax/Modem

This configuration performs Passthrough (NSE).

The configuration for a GW that does Modem Passthrough (NSE) is:

no ccm-manager fax protocol cisco
mgcp modem passthrough voip mode nse
mgcp modem passthrough voip codec g711ulaw

For an ATA186 that does Modem Passthrough (NSE), refer to Configuring and Troubleshooting the Cisco ATA 186 with Fax.

Telco – PRI – GW – MGCP – CUCM – SIP – ATA187 – Fax/Modem

This configuration performs both Passthrough and T38.

The configuration for a GW that does Modem Passthrough is:

no ccm-manager fax protocol cisco
mgcp modem passthrough voip mode nse
mgcp modem passthrough voip codec g711ulaw

The configuration for a GW that does T38 is:

no ccm-manager fax protocol cisco
no mgcp fax t38 inhibit
mgcp package-capability fxr-package
mgcp default-package fxr-package
no mgcp fax t38 ecmmgcp fax t38 nsf 000000

For ATA187, refer to Cisco ATA 187 Analog Telephone Adaptor Administration Guide for SIP, Version 1.0.

Telco – PRI – GW – SIP/H323 – CUCM – SIP – Fax Server

This configuration mostly uses T38, but you need to confirm this on the fax server.

The configuration for a GW that does T38 is:

dial-peer voice <tag> voip
fax protocol t38 ls-redundancy 0 hs-redundancy 0 fallback
pass-through <g711ulaw or g711alaw>
fax-relay ecm disable
fax-relay sg3-to-g3

Or, if there is no specific configuration on the dial-peer, then this information should display when you enter the voice service voip command.

voice service voip
fax protocol t38 ls-redundancy 0 hs-redundancy 0 fallback
pass-through <g711ulaw or g711alaw>
fax-relay ecm disable
fax-relay sg3-to-g3

ITSP – SIP – CUBE – SIP/H323 – CUCM – SCCP – VG224

VG224 needs to be an MGCP GW for this setup to work. NSE switchover is only specific to Cisco devices and providers do not support NSE based switchovers. Hence, this call flow will not work and VG224 must be converted to an MGCP GW for T38 faxing to work. After it is converted, the relevant faxing configuration will look as listed here.

The configuration for a CUBE that does T38 is:

dial-peer voice <tag> voip
fax protocol t38 ls-redundancy 0 hs-redundancy 0 fallback
pass-through <g711ulaw or g711alaw>
fax-relay ecm disable
fax-relay sg3-to-g3

Or, if there is no specific configuration on the dial-peer, then this information displays when you enter the voice service voip command.

fax protocol t38 ls-redundancy 0 hs-redundancy 0 fallback
pass-through <g711ulaw or g711alaw>
fax-relay sg3-to-g3

The configuration for a VG224 that does T38 is:

no ccm-manager fax protocol cisco
no mgcp fax t38 inhibit
mgcp package-capability fxr-package
mgcp default-package fxr-package
no mgcp fax t38 ecm

ATA186 – SCCP – CUCM – SIP – ATA187

The ATA187 needs to run firmware version 9.2.3 to support NSE based passthrough, otherwise integration is not possible.

[CICD]Q931 Disconnect Cause Codes

Introduction

This document explains how to interpret Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN) disconnect cause codes. The ISDN disconnect cause code appears in the debug isdn q931 command output, and indicates the reason for call disconnection.

Note: Activate the debug isdn q931 command for this exercise. Remember that the debug isdn q931 command generates a large volume of debugs. Refer to Important Information on Debug Commands for more information on the safe use of debugs.

Here is a sample output of the debug isdn q931 command. The output indicates the disconnect cause code for a failed ISDN call:

Calling#ping 10.10.10.2 
   Type escape sequence to abort. 
   Sending 5, 100-byte ICMP Echos to 10.10.10.2, timeout is 2 seconds: 
   20:52:14: ISDN BR0: TX -> SETUP pd = 8 callref = 0x2E 
   20:52:14: Bearer Capability i = 0x8890 
   20:52:14: Channel ID i = 0x83 20:52:14: Keypad Facility i = '5551111' 
   20:52:15: ISDN BR0: RX <- CALL_PROC pd = 8 callref = 0xAE 
   20:52:15: Channel ID i = 0x89

   20:52:16: ISDN BR0: RX <- PROGRESS pd = 8 callref = 0xAE 
   20:52:16: Progress Ind i = 0x8A81 - Call not end-to-end ISDN,
     may have in-band info 
   20:52:16: Signal i = 0x01 - Ring back tone on
   20:52:34: ISDN BR0: RX <- DISCONNECT pd = 8 callref = 0xAE 
   20:52:34: Cause i =0x829F08 - Normal,unspecified or Special intercept,
     call blocked group restriction     
   20:52:34: ISDN BR0: TX -> RELEASE pd = 8 callref = 0x2E 
   20:52:34: ISDN BR0: RX <- RELEASE_COMP pd = 8 callref = 0xAE

The 0x in the disconnect code indicates that the subsequent bytes are in hexadecimal format and are not part of the actual code. This table provides a breakdown of the code after you strip the 0x from the debug output:

Cause i = 0x829F08
Parsed Hex Bytes 82 9F 08
Description Cause Code Origination Point Disconnect Cause Code Optional Diagnostic field

Prerequisites

Requirements

There are no specific requirements for this document.

Components Used

This document is not restricted to specific software and hardware versions.

The information in this document is based on the devices in a specific lab environment. All of the devices in this document started with a cleared (default) configuration. If your network is live, make sure that you understand the potential impact of any command.

Conventions

For more information on document conventions, refer to the Cisco Technical Tips Conventions.

Cause Code Origination Point

The first byte (most significant) after 0x indicates the point in the circuit path where the disconnect cause code appears. Consider the sample output in the Introduction section. 82 indicates that the call disconnects from the local telco switch. Here is a list of cause code origination points that help you interpret where the call disconnects from:

  • 80—the router
  • 81—the private network near the local user (possibly a local private branch exchange [PBX])
  • 82—the public network near the local user (local telco switch)
  • 83—the transit network (in the ISDN cloud)
  • 84—the public network near the remote user (remote telco switch)
  • 85—the private the network near the remote user (possibly a remote PBX)
  • 87—the international network
  • 8A—a network beyond the internetworking point

Disconnect Cause Code

The next byte (9F in the sample output) that follows the cause code origination point byte is the Disconnect Cause Code. This byte helps you to troubleshoot the disconnection.

Use this table to associate a Disconnect Cause Code (in Hex) and the Cause Description to determine the disconnect reason:

Hex Code Cause Description Additional Information
80 Normal Disconnect The call disconnects normally.
81 Unallocated or unassigned number The switch receives the ISDN number in the correct format. However, the number does not belong to destination equipment.
82 No route to specified network The ISDN exchange receives a request to route the call through an unrecognized intermediate network. This cause indicates that the equipment receives a request to route the call through a particular transit network. However, the equipment does not recognize the network. The equipment that sends this cause does not recognize the transit network due to one of these reasons: The transit network does not exist. The transit network exists, but does not serve the equipment that sends this cause. This cause is supported on a network-dependent basis.
83 No route to destination The call routes through an intermediate network that does not serve the destination address. This cause indicates that the called user is not reachable. A user is not reachable when the network used to route the call does not serve the required destination. This cause is supported on a network-dependent basis.
84 Send special information tone The remote number you dialed is not reachable. Check the number you dial. Verify if you need any prefixes to access the network. For example, you need to dial 9 for outbound calls through a PBX. Contact your telco/PBX administrator for details.
85 Misdialled trunk prefix. The remote number you dialed is not reachable. Check the number you dial. Verify if you need any prefixes to access the network. For example, you need to dial 9 for outbound calls through a PBX. Contact your telco/PBX administrator for details.
86 Channel unacceptable The service quality of the specified channel is insufficient to accept the connection. The call attempt fails because the channel is unusable. If you use a PBX, check the configuration of the PBX. For a PRI, find out how many channels your telco provides.
87 Call awarded and delivered in established channel The user assigns an incoming call that connects to an already established call channel. This cause indicates that the user receives an incoming call, which connects to a channel already in use for similar calls (for example, packet-mode X.25 virtual calls).
88 Preemption Your call is blocked. Calls are sometimes blocked if another call has a higher priority than your call. This situation is common with voice calls. Wait and call again later. If you use a PBX (or the remote site to which you connect uses a PBX), check the configuration of the PBX. If the condition persists, contact your telco.
89 Preemption, circuit reserved for re-use Your call is blocked. Calls are sometimes blocked if another call has a higher priority than your call. This situation is common with voice calls. Wait and call again later. If either side uses a PBX, check the configuration of the PBX. If the condition persists, contact your telco.
90 Normal call clearing Normal call clearing occurs. You do not need to perform any action. This cause indicates that the call disconnects because one of the users involved in the call has made a request to clear the call. Under normal situations, the network is not the source of this cause. If the call fails with this Disconnect Cause Code, the call most likely fails at a higher layer protocol such as PPP, authentication or idle timeout related issues. Verify the router configuration. Also, if you have requested a callback, the remote device disconnects the call, generates this code, and then calls you back.
91 User busy The called system acknowledges the connection request. However, the system cannot accept the call because all B-channels are in use. The user equipment is compatible with the call in this situation. Note: If you have multiple ISDN circuits, the telco can configure them in a “hunt-group”, in which calls switch to the next available circuit.
92 No user response The connection fails because the destination does not respond to the call. This cause indicates that a user does not respond to a call establishment message within the prescribed period. The user must respond with either an alert or connect indication according to ITU-T Q.931, when either timer T303 or T310 expires.
93 No answer from user The destination responds to the connection request but fails to complete the connection within the prescribed time. This cause indicates that a user has provided an alert indication, but has not provided a connect indication within a prescribed period. Q.931 procedures do not necessarily generate this cause. Internal network timers sometimes generate this cause. The problem is at the remote end of the connection.
94 Subscriber absent The remote device you attempt to reach is unavailable and is disconnected from the ISDN network. Contact the person responsible for that device.
95 Call rejected The destination is able to accept the call but rejects the call for an unknown reason. This cause indicates that the equipment that sends this cause does not want to accept this call. Note: The equipment is able to accept the call because the equipment that sends this cause is neither busy nor incompatible. However, the equipment rejects the call.
96 Number changed The ISDN number used to set up the call does not belong to a system. A caller receives this cause when the called party number is no longer assigned. You can optionally include the new called party number in the diagnostic field. If a network does not support this capability, the caller receives cause No. 81, unassigned (unallocated) number.
97 Redirection to new destination Your call is routed to a different ISDN number. Check the number you call. Also verify the PBX configuration (if you use PBX).
99 Exchange routing error Your call cannot be successfully routed to the remote party. Check the number you call. Also verify the PBX configuration (if you use PBX).
9A Non-selected user clearing The destination is able to accept the call. However, the destination rejects the call because the call is not assigned to a user.
9B Destination out of order The destination is not reachable because of an interface malfunction. In addition, a signaling message cannot be delivered. This condition can be temporary. However, the condition can last for an extended period in some cases. This cause indicates that a signaling message could not be delivered to the remote user. For example, a physical layer or data link layer fails at the remote user end, and the user equipment is off-line (turned off).
9C Invalid number format The connection fails because the destination address is in an unrecognizable format, or is incomplete. Verify whether the format of the number is correct. This includes any appropriate digits for a PBX, and long distance.
9D Facility rejected The network cannot provide the facility that the user requests.
9E Response to STATUS ENQUIRY The status message appears in direct response to the receipt of a status inquiry message.
9F Normal, unspecified This message reports the occurrence of a normal event when no standard cause applies. No action is required.
A1 Circuit out of order The call cannot go through due to some problem in the ISDN network.
A2 No channel available The connection fails because no appropriate channel is available to take the call.
A3 Destination unattainable The destination is not reachable through the Telco network. Contact the Telco.
A4 Out of order Some part of the network necessary to route the call is out of order. The destination is not reachable because of a network malfunction. The condition can last for an extended period. An immediate attempt to reconnect will probably fail. If you use a long distance carrier, try to use a Presubscribed Inter-exchange Carrier (PIC). For example, you can use a 10-10-xyz carrier. A PIC enables you to verify whether the problem lies with the long distance carrier.
A6 Network out of order The destination is not reachable because of a network malfunction. The condition can last for an extended period. An immediate attempt to reconnect will probably fail. If you use a long distance carrier, try to use a Presubscribed Inter-exchange Carrier (PIC). For example, you can use a 10-10-xyz carrier. A PIC enables you to verify whether the problem lies with the long distance carrier.
A7 Permanent frame mode connection out of service This message indicates that equipment failure probably terminates the permanent connection. If the problem persists, contact your telco
A8 Permanent frame mode connection operational This message occurs when the permanent connection is fully operational again after a termination. Equipment failure probably terminated the connection previously.
A9 Temporary failure An error occurs because of a network malfunction. Contact the telco if the problem persists.
AA Switching equipment congestion The destination is not reachable because of a temporary overload on the network switching equipment. Try again later.
AB Access information discarded The network cannot provide the access information that the user requests. This cause indicates that the network is unable to deliver access information to the remote user. For example, user-to-user information, low layer compatibility, high layer compatibility, or a sub-address as the diagnostic indicates. Note: You have the option to include the particular type of discarded access information in the diagnostic.
AC Requested channel not available The remote equipment cannot provide the channel that the user requests, due to an unknown reason. This problem is usually temporary.
AF Resources unavailable, unspecified The channel or service that the user requests is unavailable for an unknown reason. This problem is usually temporary.
B1 Quality of service (QoS) unavailable The network cannot provide the quality of service that the user requests. This issue can occur due to a subscription problem. This cause reports that the network cannot provide the QoS as defined in Recommendation X.213. For example, this cause code appears when the network cannot support throughput or transit delay.
B2 Requested facility not subscribed The remote equipment supports the supplementary service by subscription only. This cause indicates that the network cannot provide the supplementary service that the user requests. The user has probably not completed the necessary administrative arrangements with the supporting networks. The ISDN network can also return this cause code when a user makes a call attempt, but does not enter the SPIDs, or enters the SPIDs incorrectly. Ensure that your SPIDs are correct, or contact your telco to verify your SPIDs. Also verify the speed of the outgoing call that the ISDN network supports (56k or 64k).
B4 Outgoing calls barred There is some restriction on outgoing calls. The ISDN network does not allow you to make outgoing calls.
B5 Outgoing calls barred within CUG1 There is some restriction on outgoing calls. The ISDN network does not allow you to make outgoing calls.
B6 Incoming calls barred The ISDN network does not allow you to receive calls. Contact your telco.
B7 Incoming calls barred within CUG1 The ISDN network does not allow you to receive calls. Contact your telco.
B9 Bearer capability not authorized A subscription problem usually causes this issue. This cause indicates that the user requests a bearer capability that the equipment implements, but the user does not have the authorization to use the capability.
BA Bearer capability not presently available The network normally provides the bearer capability that the user requests. However, if the capability is unavailable currently, this cause appears. A temporary network problem or a subscription problem can cause this issue. If the incoming call is Analog (modem call), verify whether you have an ISDN incoming voice-modem under the PRI or BRI physical interface.
BF Service/option not available, unspecified The network or remote equipment cannot provide the service option that the user requests, due to an unspecified reason. A subscription problem can cause this issue.
C1 Bearer capability not implemented The network cannot provide the bearer capability that the user requests. Contact the telco to troubleshoot further.
C2 Channel type not implemented The network or the destination equipment does not support the channel type that the user requests.
C5 Requested facility not implemented The remote equipment does not support the supplementary service that the user requests.
C6 Only restricted digital info bearer capability available The network cannot provide unrestricted digital information bearer capability. This cause indicates that a device requests an unrestricted bearer service. However, the equipment only supports the restricted version of the bearer capability.
CF Service/option not implemented, unspecified The network or remote equipment cannot provide the service option that the user requests, due to an unspecified reason. A subscription problem can cause this issue.
D1 Invalid call reference value The remote equipment receives a call with a call reference that is not currently in use on the user-network interface.
D2 Identified channel does not exist The user requests the receiving equipment to use a channel that is not activate on the interface for calls. This cause indicates that the equipment receives a request to use an inactive channel on the interface for a call. For example, if a user subscribes to those channels on a primary rate interface numbered from 1 to 12 and the user equipment or the network attempts to assign a call to channels 13 through 23, this cause code appears.
D3 Suspended call exists, but call id does not The network receives a call resume request. The call resume request contains a Call Identify (ID) information element that indicates the call ID that represents a suspended call. This cause indicates that a user attempts to resume a call with a call ID which differs from the ID in use for any currently suspended call(s).
D4 Call id in use The network receives a call resume request. The call resume request contains a Call ID information element that indicates the resume request is for a suspended call. This cause indicates that the network receives a call suspend request. The call suspend request contains a call ID (including the null call ID). This ID is already in use for a suspended call within the domain of interfaces over which the call can be resumed.
D5 No call suspended The network receives a call resume request when there is no suspended call pending. You can resolve this transient error through successive call retries. This cause code indicates that the network receives a call resume request. The call resume request contains a call ID information element that currently does not indicate any suspended call within the domain interfaces over which calls can be resumed.
D6 Call with requested call id has been cleared This cause indicates that the network receives a call resume request. The call resume request contains a call ID information element that originally indicated a suspended call. However, either a network timeout or a remote user clears the suspended call.
D7 User not member of CUG1 Your call does not go through, probably due to one of these reasons: You dial an incorrect ISDN number. You request a service that you are not authorized to use (you have not subscribed to this service). The remote device is not authorized to use a service that you use. Check the number you call. If the problem persists, contact your telco.
D8 Incompatible destination This cause indicates an attempt to connect to non-ISDN equipment. For example, an analog line. This cause indicates that the equipment receives a request to establish a call that has a low layer compatibility, high layer compatibility, or other compatibility attributes (for example, data rate) that the equipment cannot accommodate. This code often appears when the calling device dials the wrong number, and reaches a non-ISDN device. Therefore, ensure that you dial the correct number. This cause can also occur when a a data call is made to a voice number, or a voice call is made to a number that only supports data. If the number is correct, check whether the telco has configured their switch incorrectly.
DA Non-existent CUG1 Your call does not go through, probably due to one of these reasons: You dial an incorrect ISDN number. You request a service that you are not authorized to use (you have not subscribed to this service). The remote device is not authorized to use a service that you use. Check the number you dial. If the problem persists, contact your telco.
DB Invalid transit network selection The device requests the ISDN exchange to route the call through an unrecognized intermediate network. This cause indicates that the ISDN exchange receives a transit network identification of an incorrect format. Annex C of ITU-T Q.931 provides this definition.
DF Invalid message, unspecified An invalid message appears with no standard cause. This problem usually occurs due to a D-channel error. If the error occurs systematically, report the error to your ISDN service provider.
E0 Mandatory IE missing The receiving equipment receives a message that does not include one of the mandatory information elements. This cause indicates that the equipment receives a message that does not contain an information element that is necessary for the equipment to process the message. This problem occurs due to a D-channel error. Ensure that you configure the switch type correctly. Upgrade your Cisco IOS® Software on the router to solve this issue. If the error occurs systematically, report the error to your ISDN service provider.
E1 Message type not implemented The receiving equipment receives an unrecognized message, because either the message type is invalid, or the equipment does not support the message type. A problem with the remote configuration or with the local D-channel causes this issue.
E2 Message not compatible with call state or not implemented The remote equipment receives an invalid message with no standard cause. This cause indicates that the equipment receives a message that is not permissible in the call state according to the procedures. This cause can also indicate that the equipment receives a STATUS message to indicate an incompatible call state. The issue occurs due to a D-channel error. If the error recurs, report the error to your ISDN service provider.
E3 IE not implemented The remote equipment receives a message that includes information elements that the equipment cannot recognize. This cause indicates that the equipment receives a message that includes information elements that the device cannot recognize. This problem can occur when the equipment does not define or implement the information element identifier. However, the message does not need to contain the information element in order for the equipment to process the message. This issue occurs due to a D-channel error. If the error recurs, report the error to your ISDN service provider.
E4 The remote equipment receives a message that includes invalid information in the information element. This cause indicates that the equipment receives an information element that is implemented, but one or more of the fields in the information element are coded differently. This issue occurs due to a D-channel error.
E5 Message not compatible with call state The remote equipment receives an expected message that does not correspond to the current state of the connection. This issue occurs due to a D-channel error.
E6 Recovery on time expiry Your call does not go through, probably because an error occurs. For example, a state synchronization error. Wait and try again later. If the problem persists, contact your ISDN service provider.
E7 Parameter not implemented Your call does not go through because the ISDN network does not support a service you need to use. Contact your ISDN service provider.
EF Protocol error, unspecified This cause indicates an unspecified D-channel error with no other standard cause.
FF Interworking, unspecified This cause indicates that an event occurs, but the network does not provide causes for the action. The precise problem is unknown.
?? Unknown Cause value The cause value is unknown.

1 CUG: Closed User Group is a facility in X.25 and ISDN networks that allows a called number to be available only to a limited number of other users (in a virtual private network). Contact your telco for more information.

Optional Diagnostic field

The last two hexadecimal digits (08 in the example) are optional. You do not commonly use these digits for diagnostic purposes. However, you can sometimes use this byte to furnish additional information for the Disconnect Cause Code. The debug isdn q931 output can sometimes contain these digits.

[CICD]Cisco Phone Cheat Codes

There are many things in this world that are hidden just beneath the surface that make our lives easier.  Whether it be the Secret Menu at In-n-Out Burger or the good old Konami Code, the good stuff that we need is often just out of reach unless you know the code.  This is also the case when dealing with Cisco phones.  There are three key combinations that will help you immensely when configuring these devices, provided you know what they are.

1.  Unlock Settings – *, *, #.  When you check the settings on a Cisco phone, you’ll notice that you can look at the values but you can’t change any of them.  Many of these values are set at the Cisco Unified Communications Manager (CUCM) level.  However, once common issue is the phone not being able to contact the CUCM server or the phone having the wrong address/TFTP server information from DHCP.  While there are a multitude of ways to correct these issues in the network, there is a quick method to unlock the phone to change the settings.

  • Go to the Settings page of the phone
  • While in the settings page, press *, *, # (star, star, pound) about 1/2 second apart
  • The phone will display “Settings Unlocked” and allow you to make changes

It’s that easy.  There won’t be a whole lot to do with the phone Telephony User Interface (TUI), but you can make quick changes to DHCP, IP address, or TFTP server address entries to verify the phone configuration is correct.  By the way, when putting in an IP address via TUI, the “*” key can be used to put a period in an IP address.  That should save you an extra keystroke or two.

2.  Hard Reset – *,*,#,*,*.  Sometimes, you just need to reboot.  There are a variety of things that can cause a phone to need to be reset.  Firmware updates, line changes, or even ring cadence necessitate reboots.  While you can trigger these from the CUCM GUI, there are also times that they may need to be done from the phone itself in the event of a communications issue.  Rebooting is also a handy method for beginning to troubleshoot issues.

But Tom?  Why not just pull the network cable from the back of the phone?  Won’t disconnecting the power reboot?

True, it will.  What if the phone is mounted to the wall?  Or if the phone is running from an external power supply?  Or positioned in such as way that only the keypad is visible?  Better to know a different way to reboot just in case.  Here’s where the reboot cheat code comes in handy.

  • Go to the settings page of the phone
  • Press *,*,#,*,* (star, star, pound, star, star) about 1/2 second apart
  • The phone will display “Resetting” and perform a hard reset

This sequence will cause the phone to reboot as if the power cable had been unplugged and force it to pull a new configuration from CUCM.  Once common issue I find when entering this code is the keypresses not registering with the phone.  Try it a couple of times until you develop a rhythm for entering it about 1/2 second apart.  Much more than that and the phone won’t think you’re entering the code.  Quicker than that and the keys might not all register.

3.  Factory Reset – “1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9,*,0,#”.  When all else fails, nuke the phone from orbit.  It’s the only way to be sure.  Some settings are so difficult to change that it’s not worth it.  Or you’ve got a buggy firmware that needs to be erased.  In those cases, there is a way to completely reset a phone back to the shipping configuration.  You’ll need access to unplug the power cable, as well as enough dexterity to press buttons on the front as you plug it back in.

  • Unplug the power from the phone.
  • As you plug it back it, press and hold the “#” key.  If performed correctly, the Headset, Mute, and Speaker buttons in the lower right corner will start to flash in sequence.
  • When those three buttons start flashing in sequence, enter the following code: 1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9,*,0,#.  You’ll notice that’s every button on the keypad in sequence from left to right, top to bottom.
  • Phone will display “Upgrading” and erase the configuration.

4. Death trap – “ 3491672850*# ”

  • Unknown

Don’t worry if you press a key twice on accident.  The phone will still accept the code.  However, you do need to be quick about things.  The phone will only accept the factory reset code for 60 seconds after the Headset, Mute, and Speaker buttons start flashing in sequence.

[720P]Top.Gear.S24&S25

生肉注意!

孔乙己是站着喝酒而穿长衫的唯一的人。他身材很高大;青白脸色,皱纹间时常夹些伤痕;一部乱蓬蓬的花白的胡子。穿的虽然是长衫,可是又脏又破,似乎十多年没有补,也没有洗。他对人说话,总是满口之乎者也,叫人半懂不懂的。


因为他姓孔,别人便从描红纸上的“pan.baidu.com/s/1vGGSunfS-IMHd6RQGCuePw”这半懂不懂的话里,替他取下一个绰号,叫作wsyv。


孔乙己一到店,所有吃瓜的人便都看着他笑,有的叫道,“生肉,有能看得懂的嘛?”他不回答,对柜里说,“自带BBC英文声轨,自己当做听力练习”便排出五毛大洋。他们又故意的高声嚷道,“你一定又偷了人家的东西了!”孔乙己睁大眼睛说,“你怎么这样凭空污人清白……”“什么清白?萌新都不知道怎么用这代码!”孔乙己便涨红了脸,额上的青筋条条绽出,争辩道,“不会自己百度?……谷歌!……源文件名都没改,能算偷么?”接连便是难懂的话,什么“萌新固傻”,什么“者乎”之类,引得众人都哄笑起来:店内外充满了快活的空气。

默认俄语!

[CICD]T1 and E1 Glossary

Many of the terms listed below are directly visible in the show controllers t1 or show controllers e1 command output. For more information, refer to the document Understanding the show controllers e1 Command.

Error Events

Bipolar Violation (BPV) Error Event

A BPV error event for an alternate mark inversion (AMI)-coded signal is the occurrence of a pulse of the same polarity as the previous pulse. A BPV error event for a B8ZS- or HDB3- coded signal is the occurrence of a pulse of the same polarity as the previous pulse without being a part of the zero substitution code.

Controlled Slip (CS) Error Event

A Controlled Slip is the replication or deletion of the payload bits of a digital signal level 1 (DS1) frame. A Controlled Slip may be performed when there is a difference between the timing of a synchronous receiving terminal and the received signal. A Controlled Slip does not cause an Out of Frame defect.

Excessive Zeroes (EXZ) Error Event

An EXZ error event for an AMI-coded signal is the occurrence of more than fifteen contiguous zeroes. For a binary 8-zero substitution (B8ZS) coded signal, the defect occurs when more than seven contiguous zeroes are detected.

Line Coding Violation (LCV) Error Event

An LCV is the occurrence of either a Bipolar Violation or Excessive Zeroes error event.

Path Coding Violation (PCV) Error Event

A PCV error event is a frame synchronization bit error in the D4 and E1-no cyclic redundancy check (CRC) formats, or a CRC error in the Extended Super Frame (ESF) and E1-CRC formats.

Performance Defects

Alarm Indication Signal (AIS) Defect

For D4 and ESF links, the ‘all ones’ condition is detected at a DS1 line interface upon observing an unframed signal with a one’s density of at least 99.9 percent present for a time equal to or greater than T, where 3 ms is less than or equal to T, which is less than or equal to 75 ms. The AIS is terminated upon observing a signal not meeting the one’s density or the unframed signal criteria for a period equal to or greater than than T.

For E1 links, the ‘all-ones’ condition is detected at the line interface as a string of 512 bits containing fewer than three zero bits.

Out Of Frame (OOF) Defect

An OOF defect is the occurrence of a particular density of Framing Error events.

For T1 links, an OOF defect is declared when the receiver detects two or more framing errors within a 3 msec period for ESF signals and 0.75 msec for D4 signals, or two or more errors out of five, or fewer consecutive framing-bits.

For E1 links, an OOF defect is declared when three consecutive frame alignment signals have been received with an error.

When an OOF defect is declared, the framer starts searching for a correct framing pattern. The OOF defect ends when the signal is in-frame.

In-frame occurs when there are fewer than two frame bit errors within a 3 msec period for ESF signals and 0.75 msec for D4 signals.

For E1 links, in-frame occurs when:

  • in frame N, the frame alignment signal is correct and
  • in frame N+1, the frame alignment signal is absent (that is, bit 2 in TS0 is set to one) and
  • in frame N+2, the frame alignment signal is present and correct.

Performance Parameters

All performance parameters are accumulated in fifteen minute intervals and up to 96 intervals (covering a 24 hour period ) are kept by an agent. Fewer than 96 intervals of data will be available if the agent has been restarted within the last 24 hours. In addition, there is a rolling 24-hour total of each performance parameter.

There is no requirement for an agent to ensure a fixed relationship between the start of a fifteen minute interval and clock time; however some agents may align the fifteen minute intervals with quarter hours.

Bursty Errored Seconds (BES)

A Bursty Errored Second (also known as Errored Second type B) is a second with fewer than 320 and more than one Path Coding Violation error events, no Severely Errored Frame defects and no detected incoming AIS defects. Controlled slips are not included in this parameter.

This is not incremented during an Unavailable Second.

Controlled Slip Seconds (CSS)

A Controlled Slip Second is a one-second interval containing one or more controlled slips.

Degraded Minutes

A Degraded Minute is one in which the estimated error rate exceeds 1E-6 but does not exceed 1E-3.

Degraded Minutes are determined by collecting all of the Available Seconds, removing any Severely Errored Seconds grouping the result in 60-second long groups and counting a 60-second long group (minute) as degraded if the cumulative errors during the seconds present in the group exceed 1E-6. Available seconds are merely those seconds which are not unavailable as described below.

Errored Seconds (ES)

For ESF and E1-CRC links an Errored Second is a second with one of the following:

  • one or more Path Code Violations
  • one or more Out of Frame defects
  • one or more Controlled Slip events
  • a detected AIS defect

For D4 and E1-noCRC links, the presence of Bipolar Violations also triggers an Errored Second. This is not incremented during an Unavailable Second.

Line Errored Seconds (LES)

A Line Errored Second, according to T1M1.3, is a second in which one or more Line Code Violation error events were detected.

While many implementations are currently unable to detect the zero strings, it is expected that interface manufacturers will add this capability in deference to ANSI; therefore, it will become available in time.

In the T1M1.3 specification, near end Line Code Violations and far end Line Errored Seconds are counted. For consistency, we count Line Errored Seconds at both ends.

Severely Errored Framing Second (SEFS)

An Severely Errored Framing Second is a second with either one or more OOF defects or a detected AIS defect.

Severely Errored Seconds (SES)

A Severely Errored Second for ESF signals is a second with one of the following:

  • 320 or more Path Code Violation Error Events
  • one or more OOF defects
  • a detected AIS defect

For E1-CRC signals, a Severely Errored Second is a second with either 832 or more Path Code Violation error events or one or more OOF defects.

For E1-noCRC signals, a Severely Errored Second is a 2048 LCVs or more.

For D4 signals, a Severely Errored Second is a count of one-second intervals with Framing Error events, or an OOF defect, or 1544 LCVs or more.

Controlled slips are not included in this parameter.

This is not incremented during an Unavailable Second.

Unavailable Seconds (UAS)

Unavailable Seconds are calculated by counting the number of seconds that the interface is unavailable. The DS1 interface is said to be unavailable from the onset of ten contiguous SESs, or the onset of the condition leading to a failure (see Failure States). If the condition leading to the failure was immediately preceded by one or more contiguous SESs, then the DS1 interface unavailability starts from the onset of these SESs. Once unavailable, and if no failure is present, the DS1 interface becomes available at the onset of ten contiguous seconds with no SESs. Once unavailable, and if a failure is present, the DS1 interface becomes available at the onset of 10 contiguous seconds with no SESs, if the failure clearing time is less than or equal to ten seconds. If the failure clearing time is more than ten seconds, the DS1 interface becomes available at the onset of ten contiguous seconds with no SESs, or the onset period leading to the successful clearing condition, whichever occurs later. With respect to the DS1 error counts, all counters are incremented while the DS1 interface is deemed available. While the interface is deemed unavailable, the only count that is incremented is UASs.

A special case exists when the ten or more second period crosses the 900 second statistics window boundary, as the foregoing description implies that the Severely Errored Second and Unavailable Second counters must be adjusted when the Unavailable Signal State is entered. Successive “gets” of the affected dsx1IntervalSESs and dsx1IntervalUASs objects will return differing values if the first get occurs during the first few seconds of the window. This is viewed as an unavoidable side-effect of selecting the presently-defined managed objects.

Failure States

The following failure states are received or detected failures that are reported. The conditions under which a DS1 interface would, if ever, produce the conditions leading to the failure state are described in the appropriate specification.

Alarm Indication Signal (AIS) Failure

The Alarm Indication Signal failure is declared when an AIS defect is detected at the input and the AIS defect still exists after the Loss Of Frame failure (which is caused by the unframed nature of the ‘all-ones’ signal) is declared. The AIS failure is cleared when the Loss Of Frame failure is cleared.

Far End Alarm Failure(Yellow Alarm)

The Far End Alarm failure is also known as a Yellow Alarm in the T1 case and a Distant Alarm in the E1 case.

For D4 links, the Far End Alarm failure is declared when bit 6 of all channels has been zero for at least 335 ms and is cleared when bit 6 of at least one channel is non-zero for a period T, where T is usually less than one second and always less than five seconds. The Far End Alarm failure is not declared for D4 links when a Loss of Signal is detected.

For ESF links, the Far End Alarm failure is declared if the Yellow Alarm signal pattern occurs in at least seven out of ten contiguous 16-bit pattern intervals and is cleared if the Yellow Alarm signal pattern does not occur in ten contiguous 16-bit signal pattern intervals.

For E1 links, the Far End Alarm failure is declared when bit 3 of time-slot zero is received set to one on two consecutive occasions. The Far End Alarm failure is cleared when bit 3 of time-slot zero is received set to zero.

Far End Loss Of Multiframe Failure

The Far End Loss Of Multiframe failure is declared when bit 2 of TS16 of frame 0 is received set to one on two consecutive occasions. The Far End Loss Of Multiframe failure is cleared when bit 2 of TS16 of frame 0 is received set to zero. The Far End Loss Of Multiframe failure can only be declared for E1 links operating in Channel Associated Signalling mode.

Loopback Pseudo-Failure

The Loopback Pseudo-Failure is declared when the near end equipment has placed a loopback (of any kind) on the DS1. This allows a management entity to determine from one object whether the DS1 can be considered to be in service or not (from the point of view of the near end equipment).

Loss Of Frame(LOF) Failure

For T1 links, the Loss Of Frame failure is declared when an OOF or LOS defect has persisted for T seconds, where T is more than or equal to two, but less than or equal to ten. The Loss Of Frame failure is cleared when there have been no OOF or LOS defects during a period T is more than or equal to zero, but less than or equal to twenty. Many systems will perform “hit integration” within the period T before declaring or clearing the failure.

For E1 links, the Loss Of Frame Failure is declared when an OOF defect is detected.

Loss Of MultiFrame Failure

The Loss Of MultiFrame failure is declared when two consecutive multiframe alignment signals (bits 4 through 7 of TS16 of frame 0) have been received with an error. The Loss Of Multiframe failure is cleared when the first correct multiframe alignment signal is received. The Loss Of Multiframe failure can only be declared for E1 links operating with framing (sometimes called Channel Associated Signalling mode).

Loss Of Signal (LOS) Failure

For T1, the Loss Of Signal failure is declared upon observing 175 +/- 75 contiguous pulse positions with no pulses of either positive or negative polarity. The LOS failure is cleared upon observing an average pulse density of at least 12.5 percent over a period of 175 +/- 75 contiguous pulse positions starting with the receipt of a pulse.

For E1 links, the Loss Of Signal failure is declared when greater than ten consecutive zeroes are detected.

TS16 Alarm Indication Signal Failure

For E1 links, the TS16 Alarm Indication Signal failure is declared when time-slot 16 is received as all ones for all frames of two consecutive multiframes. This condition is never declared for T1.

[LEGO]穷三代 42078+42082

[WWB] Oh 365 ~

How to determine the connection of application

Start  “Task Manager”—click  “Processes”—select “PID” box in “view-select Colunms”

Find out the PID of the application

Input the command “ netstat –ano | findstr “PID”

—————— pac file ——–

function FindProxyForURL(url, host)

{

    url = url.toLowerCase();

    host = host.toLowerCase();

                //——————————————————-

                // Traffic should go via proxy

                //——————————————————-

                if (

                                shExpMatch(host, “163.44.159.68”) ||   //Entry for this VPS

                                shExpMatch(host, “*.kkmg.vip”) ||       //Entry for this VPS

                                )

                return “PROXY 127.0.0.1:1080”;

    // Default Traffic Forwarding

     return ” DIRECT “;

}